Introduction

On September 11-14, 1995, the fourth in a series of classified symposia on tactical meteorology and oceanography was held at the Naval Air Station in Fallon, Nevada. The symposium was organized by the National Research Council's Ocean Studies Board and was sponsored jointly by the Office of the Oceanographer of the Navy and the Office of Naval Research. This particular symposium focused on meteorological and oceanographic factors and their exploitation during strike warfare and ship self-defense missions. Within the Navy, the term METOC is used extensively to refer to meteorology and oceanography. This term appears frequently throughout this report, especially during discussions of these disciplines and their relationship to strike warfare and ship self-defense, or the relevant research community. The effects of various environmental factors on both strike warfare and ship self-defense were considered simultaneously, owing to similarities in the equipment used in both missions (e.g., sensors and air platforms) and their sensitivity to weather and sea state. It was assumed that environmental sensitivities can be exploited to improve detection and counterdetection.

Strike warfare has evolved into a complex joint mission that involves the use of combat aircraft or cruise missiles to (1) penetrate an adversary's electronic, missile, and artillery anti-aircraft defenses; (2) deliver ordnance on specified targets; (3) assess battle damage; and (4) return to base safely. Similar to other Navy missions, strike warfare is extremely complex and dynamic in nature. Recent strike operations in the Middle East (associated with Operation Desert Storm) and in Bosnia highlight some of the demands placed on strike mission participants. During the cruise missile phases of Operation Desert Storm, heavy anti-aircraft artillery, small arms fire, and networked electronic warfare had to be assessed and suppressed by tactical aircraft. In Bosnia and the Persian Gulf, precise techniques were used to minimize civilian casualties and damage to property, since tactical targets were often near, or even adjacent to, civilian assets. Great effort was taken to reduce collateral damage and destruction.

In some respects, ship self-defense is the mirror image of strike warfare. In ship self-defense, sensors are attuned to detect hostile tactical aircraft and cruise missiles prior to the release or delivery of ordnance. Self-defense sensors must possess the best-available reaction characteristics. The high speeds of tactical aircraft exploiting atmospheric radar masking, together with the stealth capability of sea-skimming cruise missiles (e.g., hiding in ocean wave-cluttered radar images) allow a ship under attack only minutes to respond. This short response time is exemplified by the experience of the USS



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Proceedings of the Symposium on Tactical Meteorology and Oceanography: Support for Strike Warfare and Ship Self-Defense Introduction On September 11-14, 1995, the fourth in a series of classified symposia on tactical meteorology and oceanography was held at the Naval Air Station in Fallon, Nevada. The symposium was organized by the National Research Council's Ocean Studies Board and was sponsored jointly by the Office of the Oceanographer of the Navy and the Office of Naval Research. This particular symposium focused on meteorological and oceanographic factors and their exploitation during strike warfare and ship self-defense missions. Within the Navy, the term METOC is used extensively to refer to meteorology and oceanography. This term appears frequently throughout this report, especially during discussions of these disciplines and their relationship to strike warfare and ship self-defense, or the relevant research community. The effects of various environmental factors on both strike warfare and ship self-defense were considered simultaneously, owing to similarities in the equipment used in both missions (e.g., sensors and air platforms) and their sensitivity to weather and sea state. It was assumed that environmental sensitivities can be exploited to improve detection and counterdetection. Strike warfare has evolved into a complex joint mission that involves the use of combat aircraft or cruise missiles to (1) penetrate an adversary's electronic, missile, and artillery anti-aircraft defenses; (2) deliver ordnance on specified targets; (3) assess battle damage; and (4) return to base safely. Similar to other Navy missions, strike warfare is extremely complex and dynamic in nature. Recent strike operations in the Middle East (associated with Operation Desert Storm) and in Bosnia highlight some of the demands placed on strike mission participants. During the cruise missile phases of Operation Desert Storm, heavy anti-aircraft artillery, small arms fire, and networked electronic warfare had to be assessed and suppressed by tactical aircraft. In Bosnia and the Persian Gulf, precise techniques were used to minimize civilian casualties and damage to property, since tactical targets were often near, or even adjacent to, civilian assets. Great effort was taken to reduce collateral damage and destruction. In some respects, ship self-defense is the mirror image of strike warfare. In ship self-defense, sensors are attuned to detect hostile tactical aircraft and cruise missiles prior to the release or delivery of ordnance. Self-defense sensors must possess the best-available reaction characteristics. The high speeds of tactical aircraft exploiting atmospheric radar masking, together with the stealth capability of sea-skimming cruise missiles (e.g., hiding in ocean wave-cluttered radar images) allow a ship under attack only minutes to respond. This short response time is exemplified by the experience of the USS

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Proceedings of the Symposium on Tactical Meteorology and Oceanography: Support for Strike Warfare and Ship Self-Defense Stark during its Persian Gulf encounter with air-to-surface missiles launched by Iraqi aircraft. To improve the Navy's ability to conduct successful and reliable naval actions under such combat conditions, a strong commitment to a balanced research and development program is necessary. The program should address such issues as data acquisition, threat assessment, tactical and operational analysis, education, and mission rehearsal via simulations and fleet exercises. Symposium participants from academia, Navy laboratories, systems commands, and operational forces examined the METOC forcing parameters that have a direct impact on strike warfare and ship self-defense. The participants were asked to discuss ways to: address timely operational problems, fleet mission needs, and other areas in which METOC research and development solutions need to be developed; enhance communication and interchange among the basic and applied research communities, as well as with naval forces engaged in strike warfare and ship self-defense; and enable an extended group of researchers to become familiar with challenging naval issues that are uniquely or strongly applicable to the strike warfare and ship self-defense METOC regime. Several introductory presentations were made to familiarize symposium participants with tactical operations and future challenges in meteorology and oceanography. CAPT Tim Keating, commanding officer of the Naval Strike Warfare Center, opened the plenary session with an overview of the center's missions and functions and how it works to improve strike warfare tactics and provide improved training officer aviators. Improved training is accomplished through both classroom and simulator instruction and assessment, including mission work-up and tactical flight time. Meteorological and oceanographic requirements for strike warfare were discussed by LCDR Zendka Willis of the Naval Air Systems Command. This presentation highlighted the direct and indirect effects of the environment on the performance of cruise missile and standoff weapon systems. Also discussed were mission planning assets presently available to tacticians for assessing the impact of encountered or forecasted atmospheric and sea conditions on system performance. CDR Dave Titley, of the Naval Oceanographic Office, presented a quantitative overview of how tactical operations are affected by individual parameters. He also spoke of the forecasting services and capabilities available to the fleet that exploit weather conditions to optimize sensor or weapon performance. Mr. Wayne Tanaka, of the Naval Air Warfare Center in China Lake, California, discussed future directions planned for naval tactical strikes and the functional elements of strike sensor systems in conjunction with environmental aspects of system performance. Background briefings on ship self-defense began with a presentation by LCDR Robert Dees of the AEGIS Program Office, Naval Sea Systems Command. LCDR Dees described the reality of operating today's high-technology ship self-defense systems with very short reaction times. Dr. Mark Grussendort, of the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations (N86T), spoke of these requirements with respect to how meteorological and oceanographic parameters can affect ship self-defense system performance. CDR Dave Markham, of the Naval Space and Warfare Systems Command (PMW-175), introduced a real-world perspective by summarizing the impact of environmental factors on ship self-defense operations during a recent fleet exercise. Dr. Carlyle Wash, of the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, discussed the impact of environmental research and development on future Navy meteorologic and oceanographic tactical

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Proceedings of the Symposium on Tactical Meteorology and Oceanography: Support for Strike Warfare and Ship Self-Defense support. Mr. Roger Horman, of the Naval Surface Weapons Center, Dahlgren, explained how future shipboard sensors and systems could be designed for adaptation to complex maritime and coastal environments. Dr. Jurgen Richter, of the Naval Command, Control, and Ocean Surveillance Center in San Diego, summarized the present state of atmospheric refractivity-based tactical environmental decision aids and how they can be improved for future fleet operations. Finally, Dr. David Rogers, of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, described today's most challenging fleet operational area, the coastal littoral region, and how science may be brought to bear on problems encountered in this area.

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Proceedings of the Symposium on Tactical Meteorology and Oceanography: Support for Strike Warfare and Ship Self-Defense This page in the original is blank.