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Proceedings of the Symposium on Tactical Meteorology and Oceanography: Support for Strike Warfare and Ship Self-Defense Proceedings of the Symposium on Tactical Meteorology and Oceanography: Support for Strike Warfare and Ship Self-Defense Naval Strike Warfare Center Naval Air Station, Fallon, Nevada September 11-14, 1995 Ocean Studies Board Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1996
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Proceedings of the Symposium on Tactical Meteorology and Oceanography: Support for Strike Warfare and Ship Self-Defense NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. This report and the committee were supported by the Office of the Oceanographer of the Navy and the Office of Naval Research, Department of the Navy. The views expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsors. Cover art was created by Ellen Hill-Godfrey. Ms. Hill-Godfrey received her master's of fine arts degree from the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. Her paintings and prints have been exhibited in the Washington, D.C. area, and throughout the mid-Atlantic and southern regions. She has done illustrations for the University of Georgia Press and the University of North Carolina's Endeavors magazine. Ms. Hill-Godfrey resides in Kensington, Maryland. Copies of this report are available from the Ocean Studies Board, National Research Council, 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C., 20418. Copyright 1996 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America.
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Proceedings of the Symposium on Tactical Meteorology and Oceanography: Support for Strike Warfare and Ship Self-Defense OCEAN STUDIES BOARD WILLIAM MERRELL (Chairman), The H. John Heinz III Center for Science, Economics, and the Environment, Washington, D.C. GERALD A. CANN, Senior Advisor to the Executive Committee, Raytheon Company, Arlington, Virginia WILLIAM CURRY, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts ELLEN DRUFFEL, University of California, Irvine RANA FINE, University of Miami, Florida JOHN E. FLIPSE, Independent Consultant, Georgetown, South Carolina SUSAN HANNA, Oregon State University, Corvallis JOHN E. HOBBIE, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, Massachusetts EILEEN E. HOFMANN, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia ROBERT B. GAGOSIAN, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts ROBERT KNOX, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California LOUIS L. LANZEROTTI, AT&T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, New Jersey JOHN MAGNUSON, University of Wisconsin, Madison B. GREGORY MITCHELL, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California ARTHUR NOWELL, University of Washington, Seattle TERRANCE J. QUINN, University of Alaska, Fairbanks C. BARRY RALEIGH, University of Hawaii, Honolulu JAMES P. RAY, Shell Oil Company, Houston, Texas PETER RHINES, University of Washington, Seattle BRIAN ROTHSCHILD, University of Massachusetts, Dartmouth THOMAS C. ROYER, University of Alaska, Fairbanks LYNDA SHAPIRO, University of Oregon, Charleston SHARON SMITH, University of Miami, Florida PAUL STOFFA, University of Texas, Austin Staff MORGAN GOPNIK, Acting Director MARY HOPE KATSOUROS, Director (Leave of Absence) EDWARD R. URBAN, JR., Program Officer DAN WALKER, Program Officer STEWART B. NELSON, Consultant MARY ENG, Administrative Associate LORA TAYLOR, Senior Project Assistant LAVONCYÉ MALLORY, Project Assistant HEATHER BLOUGH, Project Assistant
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Proceedings of the Symposium on Tactical Meteorology and Oceanography: Support for Strike Warfare and Ship Self-Defense COMMISSION ON GEOSCIENCES, ENVIRONMENT, AND RESOURCES M. GORDON WOLMAN (Chairman), The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland PATRICK R. ATKINS, Aluminum Company of America, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania JAMES P. BRUCE, Canadian Climate Program Board, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada WILLIAM L. FISHER, University of Texas, Austin JERRY F. FRANKLIN, University of Washington, Seattle GEORGE M. HORNBERGER, University of Virginia, Charlottesville DEBRA KNOPMAN, Progressive Foundation, Washington, D.C. PERRY L. MCCARTY, Stanford University, Stanford, California JUDITH E. MCDOWELL, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts S. GEORGE PHILANDER, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey RAYMOND A. PRICE, Queen's University at Kingston, Ontario, Canada THOMAS C. SCHELLING, University of Maryland, College Park ELLEN SILBERGELD, University of Maryland Medical School, Baltimore STEVEN M. STANLEY, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland VICTORIA J. TSCHINKEL, Landers and Parsons, Tallahassee, Florida Staff STEPHEN RATTIEN, Executive Director STEPHEN D. PARKER, Associate Executive Director MORGAN GOPNIK, Assistant Executive Director GREGORY SYMMES, Reports Officer JAMES MALLORY, Administrative Officer SANDI FITZPATRICK, Administrative Associate SUSAN SHERWIN, Project Assistant