References

Becker, R. A., W. S. Cleveland and A. R. Wilks. 1987. Dynamic graphics for data analysis. Statistical Science 2(4):355-395. See also 5 “Comment” articles plus “Rejoinder” in the same issue.

Cleveland, W. S., and M. E. McGill. 1988. Dynamic Graphics for Statistics. Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth and Brooks/Bole.

Fore, L., J. Karr, and L. Conquest. 1994. Statistical properties of an index of biological integrity used to evaluate water resources. Canadian Journal Fish. Aquat. Sci. 51, in press.

Frey, D. G. 1977. Biological integrity of water—a historical approach. Pp. 127-140 in The Integrity of Water. R.K. Ballentine and L. J. Guarria, eds. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Washington, D.C.

Herlihy, A. T., P. R. Kaufmann, and M. E. Mitch. 1991. Stream chemistry in the eastern United States. 2. Current sources of acidity in acidic and low acid-neutralizing capacity streams. Water Resources Research 27(4):629-642.

Karr, J. R., K. D. Fausch, P. L. Angermeirer, P. R. Yant, and I. J. Schlosser. 1986. Assessing biological integrity in running waters: A method and its rationale. Illinois Natural History Survey Special Publication 5. 28 p.

Karr, J. R., and D. R. Dudley. 1981. Ecological perspective on water quality goals. Environmental Management 5:55-68.



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Review of EPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program: Surface Waters Monitoring Component References Becker, R. A., W. S. Cleveland and A. R. Wilks. 1987. Dynamic graphics for data analysis. Statistical Science 2(4):355-395. See also 5 “Comment” articles plus “Rejoinder” in the same issue. Cleveland, W. S., and M. E. McGill. 1988. Dynamic Graphics for Statistics. Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth and Brooks/Bole. Fore, L., J. Karr, and L. Conquest. 1994. Statistical properties of an index of biological integrity used to evaluate water resources. Canadian Journal Fish. Aquat. Sci. 51, in press. Frey, D. G. 1977. Biological integrity of water—a historical approach. Pp. 127-140 in The Integrity of Water. R.K. Ballentine and L. J. Guarria, eds. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Washington, D.C. Herlihy, A. T., P. R. Kaufmann, and M. E. Mitch. 1991. Stream chemistry in the eastern United States. 2. Current sources of acidity in acidic and low acid-neutralizing capacity streams. Water Resources Research 27(4):629-642. Karr, J. R., K. D. Fausch, P. L. Angermeirer, P. R. Yant, and I. J. Schlosser. 1986. Assessing biological integrity in running waters: A method and its rationale. Illinois Natural History Survey Special Publication 5. 28 p. Karr, J. R., and D. R. Dudley. 1981. Ecological perspective on water quality goals. Environmental Management 5:55-68.

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Review of EPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program: Surface Waters Monitoring Component Kaufmann, P. R., A. T. Herlihy, M. E. Mitch, and J. J. Messer. 1991. Stream chemistry in the eastern United States. 1. Synoptic survey design, acid-base status, and regional patterns . Water Resources Research 27(4):611-627. Larsen, D. P., K. W. Thornton, N. S. Urquhart, and S. G. Paulsen. Submitted. The role of probability-based surveys for monitoring the condition of the nation's lakes. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. Larsen, D. P., N. S. Urquhart, and D. L. Kugler. In review. Regional scale monitoring of indicators of trophic condition of lakes . Water Resources Research. Magnuson, J. J., B. J. Benson, and T. K. Kratz. 1990. Temporal coherence in the limnology of a suite of lakes in Wisconsin, U.S.A. Freshwater Biology 23:145-159. National Research Council. 1994. Review of the Forest and Estuaries Components of EPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Nicholson, A. J. 1933. The balance of animal populations. Journal of Animal Ecol. 2:132-178. Noss, R. F. 1990. Indicators for monitoring biodiversity: a hierarchical approach. Conservation Biology 4:355-364. Swingle, H. S. 1950. Relationships and Dynamics of Balanced and Unbalanced Fish Populations . Alabama Polytech. Inst. Agric. Exp. Sta. Bulletin 274. 74 p. Auburn, Ala. Urquhart, N. S., W. S. Overton, and D. S. Birkes. 1993. Comparing Sampling Designs for Monitoring Ecological Status and Trends: Impact of Temporal Patterns. Pp. 71-85 in V. Barnett and K. F. Turkman, eds. Statistics for the Environment. London: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1989. Report to Congress. Water Quality in the Nations Lakes. EPA 440-5-89-003. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1991a. EMAP-Surface Waters Monitoring and Reseach Strategy. EPA Environmental Research Laboratory, Corvallis, Oregon. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1991b. EMAP-Surface Waters Implementation Plan-Northeast Lakes Pilot

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Review of EPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program: Surface Waters Monitoring Component Survey. EPA Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory, Las Vegas, Nevada. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1993a. EMAP-Surface Waters 1991 Pilot Report. EPA Environmental Research Laboratory, Corvallis, Oregon. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1993b. Stream Indicator and Design Workshop, EMAP. EPA Environmental Research Laboratory, Corvallis, Oregon. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1994. EMAP-Surface Waters Stream Pilots in the Mid-Atlantic Highlands. EPA Office of Research and Development, Washington, D.C. Zimmerman, G. M., H. Goetz, and P. W. Mielke, Jr. 1985. Use of an improved statistical method for group comparisons to study effects of prairie fire. Ecology 66:606-611.