1. Introduction

In this part of the monograph, we present ultrafast radiochemical separation procedures that are available from the literature. Figure 48 shows the elements for which procedures are included. Table 12 provides a summary and key to the procedures. Each individual listing gives a short summary of the separation procedure and references the source article.

Figure 48. Elements for which fast chemistry procedures are included in Part II. The number below the element symbol gives the separation time (in seconds) for the fastest general procedure. The number on the right of the noble gas group and on the left of the lanthanides and actinides is the time reported for the generic procedure for that group.



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ULTRAFAST CHEMICAL SEPARATIONS 1. Introduction In this part of the monograph, we present ultrafast radiochemical separation procedures that are available from the literature. Figure 48 shows the elements for which procedures are included. Table 12 provides a summary and key to the procedures. Each individual listing gives a short summary of the separation procedure and references the source article. Figure 48. Elements for which fast chemistry procedures are included in Part II. The number below the element symbol gives the separation time (in seconds) for the fastest general procedure. The number on the right of the noble gas group and on the left of the lanthanides and actinides is the time reported for the generic procedure for that group.

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ULTRAFAST CHEMICAL SEPARATIONS Table 12. List of ultrafast radiochemical separation procedures. Element Proc. # Mode Technique Time Actinides An-1 Autobatch Gas chromatography Few min Actinium Ac-1 Batch Extraction 3 min Actinium Ac-2 Batch Extraction, ion exchange 100 s Antimony Sb-1 Autobatch Volatilization 2.7 s Antimony Sb-2 Batch Volatilization 5.4 s Antimony Sb-3 Batch Volatilization 10 s Antimony Sb-4 Batch Volatilization 6 s Antimony Sb-5 Autobatch Volatilization 1.6 s Antimony Sb-6 Batch Extraction ~1 min Antimony Sb-7 Batch Volatilization 10 to 15 s Antimony Sb-8 Batch Volatilization ~10 s Antimony Sb-9 Batch Electrolysis 10 to 20 s Antimony (As) Sb-10 Batch Volatilization <10 s Antimony (for Te) Sb-11 Autobatch Volatilization 7.3 s Antimony Sb-12 Batch Plating, chemical <1 min Antimony Sb-13 Batch Volatilization Few s Argon Ar-1 Batch Condensation <1 s Arsenic As-1 Autobatch Volatilization 2.5 s Arsenic As-2 Autobatch Volatilization 5 s Arsenic As-3 Batch Volatilization 5.A s Arsenic As-4 Continuous Adsorption, extraction Few s Arsenic As-5 Batch Volatilization 10 s Arsenic As-6 Continuous Extraction 3 or 4 s Arsenic As-7 Autobatch Volatilization 1.9 s Arsenic As-8 Batch Volatilization ~10 s Arsenic As-9 Batch Electrolysis 10 to 20 s Arsenic (Sb) As-10 Batch Volatilization <10 s Arsenic As-11 Continuous Extraction 1.0 s Astatine At-1 Batch Volatilization ~30 s Astatine At-2 Batch Extraction Few min Astatine At-3 Batch Volatilization <30 s Astatine At-4 Batch Extraction 90 s Barium Ba-1 Batch Electrophoresis <1 min Barium Ba-2 Continuous/batch Extraction <1 min Barium Ba-3 Batch Precipitation Few min Barium Ba-4 Batch Precipitation Few min Barium (from Cs) Ba-5 Continuous Ion exchange Few s Barium (from La) Ba-6 Batch Precipitation 3 to 4 s Bismuth Bi-1 Batch Extraction 5 min Bismuth (+Po) Bi-2 Batch Precipitation 4 min Bromine Br-1 Batch Volatilization Few s Bromine Br-2 Batch/continuous Hot atom, gas phase 10 s Bromine Br-3 Batch Volatilization 8 s Bromine Br-4 Continuous Adsorption ~1 s

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ULTRAFAST CHEMICAL SEPARATIONS Bromine Br-5 Batch Electrophoresis 40 s Bromine Br-6 Continuous/batch Hot-atom reaction 2 s Bromine Br-7 Continuous Volatilization ~1 s Bromine Br-8 Batch Hot-atom reaction 0.5 s Bromine Br-9 Continuous Extraction ~5 s Bromine Br-10 Batch Gas chromatography Few min Bromine Br-11 Batch Volatilization Few s Bromine Br-12 Batch Extraction 30 s Bromine Br-13 Batch Volatilization <1 min Bromine Br-14 Batch Extraction 100 s Bromine Br-15 Batch Distillation 20 to 25 s Cadmium Cd- 1 Continuous Thermochromatography ~1 s Cadmium Cd-2 Batch Extraction 5 to 10 s Cadmium Cd-3 Continuous Extraction ~2 s Cadmium Cd-4 Batch Thermochromatography Few s Cadmium Cd-5 Batch Extraction 2 min Californium Cf-1 Batch Ion exchange Few min Carbon C-1 Batch Precipitation <1 min Carbon C-2 Batch Precipitation 20 s Carbon C-3 Batch Volatilization Few min Cerium Ce-1 Batch Extraction ~5 min Cerium Ce-2 Batch Electrophoresis 2 to 3 min Cerium Ce-3 Continuous Extraction ~5 s Cerium Ce-4 Continuous Extraction 10 to 20 s Cerium Ce-5 Continuous Extraction <5 s Cerium Ce-6 Batch Electrophoresis 6.5 min Cerium Ce-7 Batch Extraction 2 min Cesium Cs- 1 Batch Electrophoresis ~40 s Cesium Cs-2 Batch Precipitation 3.5 min Cesium Cs-3 Batch Precipitation <3 min Cesium Cs-4 Batch Precipitation ~30 s Copper Cu-1 Continuous Extraction 20 s Copper Cu-2 Batch Plating, chemical ~1 min Copper Cu-3 Batch Precipitation ~1 min Copper Cu-4 Batch Precipitation 4 to 5 min Copper Cu-5 Batch Plating, chemical 2 min Dysprosium Dy-1 Autobatch Extraction, ion exchange <9 min Europium Eu-1 Batch Extraction 1 min Gadolinium Gd-1 Autobatch Extraction, ion exchange 3.2 min Gallium Ga-1 Batch Extraction Few min Gallium Ga-2 Batch Extraction ~1 min Germanium Ge-1 Autobatch Volatilization 10 s Germanium Ge-2 Autobatch Volatilization ~5 s Germanium Ge-3 Continuous Adsorption, extraction Few s

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ULTRAFAST CHEMICAL SEPARATIONS Germanium Ge-4 Batch Distillation 25 s Germanium Ge-5 Batch/autobatch Distillation 25 s Gold Au-1 Batch Extraction ~4 min Gold Au-2 Batch Extraction Few min Hafnium Hf-1 Continuous Thermochromatography ~0.4 s Hafnium Hf-2 Batch Extraction, precipitation 5 min Hafnium Hf-3 Autobatch Ion exchange 10 to 20 s Halogens Hal-1 Batch/continuous Emanation ~1 s Halogens Hal-2 Batch/continuous Hot-atom reaction ~2 s Helium He-1 Batch Emanation 2 s Indium In-1 Batch Extraction 5 to 10 s Indium In-2 Continuous Extraction ~2 s Indium In-3 Batch Extraction Few s Iodine I-1 Batch Volatilization Few s Iodine I-2 Continuous Hot/atom reaction 2 s Iodine I-3 Batch Hot/atom reaction 0.5 s Iodine I-4 Continuous Extraction ~5 s Iodine I-5 Batch Gas chromatography ~1 min Iodine I-6 Batch Exchange 52 s Iodine I-7 Batch Exchange 2 s Iodine I-8 Batch Volatilization ~30 s Iodine I-9 Batch Extraction 28 s Iodine I-10 Batch Extraction 28 s Iodine I-11 Batch Volatilization ~10 to 15 s Iridium Ir-1 Batch Thermochromatography 3 to 5 min Iridium Ir-2 Batch Volatilization Few s Iridium Ir-3 Batch/continuous Ion exchange Few s Iron Fe-1 Batch Precipitation 3 to 5 min Iron Fe-2 Batch Extraction Few min Iron Fe-3 Batch Ion exchange 150 s Krypton Kr-1 Batch Emanation Few s Krypton Kr-2 Batch Volatilization <1 min Lanthanides Ln-1 Autobatch Extraction, ion exchange <3 min Lanthanides Ln-2 Batch Electrophoresis ~5 min Lanthanides Ln-3 Autobatch Gas chromatography Few min Lanthanides Ln-4 Batch Extraction 15 to 20 s Lanthanum La-1 Batch Electrophoresis 3 min Lanthanum La-2 Continuous Extraction 10 to 20 s Lanthanum La-3 Continuous Extraction <5 s Lanthanum La-4 Batch Electrophoresis 40 s Lanthanum La-5 Continuous Extraction, ion exchange ~4 min Lanthanum La-6 Batch Electrophoresis 4.5 min Lanthanum La-7 Batch Precipitation Few min Lanthanum La-8 Batch Precipitation 1.7 min

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ULTRAFAST CHEMICAL SEPARATIONS Lawrencium Lr-1 Batch Extraction 50 s Lawrencium Lr-2 Batch Extraction 3 min Lawrencium Lr-3 Batch Ion exchange 6 min Lawrencium Lr-4 Autobatch Cation exchange (HPLC) 160 s Lawrencium (from Md) Lr-5 Autobatch Extraction (HPLC) 1 to 2 min Lead Pb-1 Batch/continuous Ion exchange Few s Lead Pb-2 Batch Ion exchange 3 s Lead Pb-3 Continuous/batch Extraction <1 min Lead Pb-4 Batch Extraction 5 min Lutetium Lu-1 Batch Extraction, precipitation 6 min Manganese Mn-1 Batch Precipitation Few min Manganese Mn-2 Batch Precipitation Few min Mendelevium Md-1 Batch Ion exchange ~5 min Mendelevium Md-2 Autobatch Cation exchange (HPLC) 200 s Mendelevium (from Lr) Md-3 Autobatch Extraction (HPLC) 1 to 2 min Mercury Hg-1 Batch Thermochromatography 3 to 5 min Mercury Hg-2 Batch Volatilization 1 to 5 min Mercury Hg-3 Batch Precipitation Few min Mercury Hg-4 Batch Volatilization <1 min Molybdenum Mo-1 Autobatch Extraction 5 s Molybdenum Mo-2 Batch Thermochromatography 3 to 5 min Molybdenum Mo-3 Batch Precipitation ~2 min Molybdenum Mo-4 Batch Precipitation 2 min Neon Ne-1 Batch Adsorption Few s Neptunium Np-1 Continuous Extraction 10 s Neptunium Np-2 Autobatch Extraction, ion exchange 2.7 min Niobium Nb-1 Autobatch Adsorption 2.2 to 2.4 s Niobium Nb-2 Continuous Extraction ~9 s Niobium Nb-3 Autobatch Adsorption 2.2 s Niobium Nb-4 Batch Extraction <1 min Niobium Nb-5 Continuous Thermochromatography 0.1 to 0.2 s Niobium Nb-6 Batch Thermochromatography <3 min Niobium Nb-7 Batch Recoil Few s Niobium Nb-8 Autobatch Adsorption ~5 s Niobium Nb-9 Continuous Thermochromatography 12 s Nitrogen N-1 Batch Volatilization 5 to 10 s Nitrogen N-2 Batch Emanation 8 s Nitrogen N-3 Batch Volatilization Few s Nobelium No-1 Batch Ion exchange Few min Noble gases Ng-1 Batch Emanation Few s Noble gases Ng-2 Batch/continuous Emanation ~1 s Osmium Os-1 Batch Thermochromatography 3 to 5 min Osmium Os-2 Batch Thermochromatography <5 min Osmium Os-3 Batch Distillation Few min

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ULTRAFAST CHEMICAL SEPARATIONS Oxygen O-1 Batch Sorption ~1 min Oxygen O-2 Batch Sorption Few s Palladium Pd- 1 Autobatch Extraction 135 s Palladium Pd-2 Autobatch Extraction <1 min Palladium Pd-3 Batch Plating, chemical ~2 s Phosphorus P-1 Batch Adsorption 2 min Platinum Pt-1 Batch Precipitation 2 to 3 min Polonium Po-1 Batch Plating, chemical ~1 min Polonium Po-2 Batch Extraction <1 min Polonium (+Bi) Po-3 Batch Precipitation 4 min Polonium Po-4 Batch Volatilization <30 s Potassium K-1 Batch Precipitation Few min Potassium K-2 Batch Precipitation Few min Praseodymium Pr-1 Batch Electrophoresis 3 min Praseodymium Pr-2 Continuous Extraction 10 to 20 s Praseodymium Pr-3 Batch Electrophoresis 3 min Praseodymium Pr-4 Batch Extraction ~5 min Praseodymium Pr-5 Batch Electrophoresis 6.5 min Promethium Pm-1 Autobatch Extraction, ion exchange <3 min Protactinium Pa-1 Batch Extraction ~30 s Protactinium Pa-2 Batch Extraction ~2 min Protactinium Pa-3 Autobatch Extraction 2.3 min Radon Rn-1 Batch Volatilization 40 s Radon Rn-2 Continuous Condensation Few s Rhenium Re-1 Batch Thermochromatography <3 min Rhenium Re-2 Batch Thermochromatography 3 to 5 min Rhenium Re-3 Batch Thermochromatography ~3 min Rhenium Re-4 Batch Thermochromatography ~5 min Rhenium Re-5 Continuous Thermochromatography <3 s Rhenium Re-6 Batch Extraction Few min Rhodium Rh-1 Batch Distillation 140 s Rubidium Rb-1 Batch Recoil Few min Rubidium Rb-2 Batch Precipitation 3 min Rubidium Rb-3 Batch Precipitation ~1 min Rubidium Rb-4 Batch Precipitation Few s Ruthenium Ru-1 Continuous Volatilization 1 s Ruthenium Ru-2 Batch Extraction 40 to 50 s Ruthenium Ru-3 Autobatch Extraction 8.3 s Ruthenium Ru-4 Batch Distillation ~60 s Ruthenium Ru-5 Batch Distillation ~5 s Ruthenium Ru-6 Batch Volatilization ~5 s Ruthenium Ru-7 Batch Distillation 30 to 40 s Ruthenium Ru-8 Continuous Extraction 5 to 6 s Ruthenium Ru-9 Batch Thermochromatography 3 min

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ULTRAFAST CHEMICAL SEPARATIONS Ruthenium Ru-10 Batch Distillation ~1 min Ruthenium Ru-11 Batch Distillation ~3 min Samarium Sm-1 Autobatch Extraction, ion exchange ~11 min Scandium Sc-1 Batch Extraction ~1 min Selenium Se-1 Autobatch Volatilization, extraction 5 s Selenium Se-2 Batch Exchange 1.0 to 2.3 s Selenium Se-3 Batch Volatilization 4 to 8 s Selenium Se-4 Continuous Thermal decomposition 1 to 2 s Selenium Se-5 Continuous Adsorption ~1 s Selenium Se-6 Batch Electrophoresis <1 min Selenium Se-7 Batch Precipitation 45 to 50 s Selenium (Te) Se-8 Batch Volatilization <10 s Selenium Se-9 Batch Volatilization ~5 s Silicon Si-1 Continuous Condensation Few s Silver Ag-1 Batch Exchange 14 to 29 s Silver Ag-2 Autobatch Exchange 4.1 s Silver Ag-3 Batch Plating, chemical ~3 s Silver Ag-4 Batch Exchange ~20 s Silver Ag-5 Batch Exchange ~20 s Silver Ag-6 Batch Extraction 5 to 10 s Silver Ag-7 Continuous Extraction ~2 s Silver Ag-8 Batch Ion exchange Few min Silver Ag-9 Batch Recoil <1 min Silver Ag-10 Batch Precipitation <1 min Silver Ag-11 Batch Plating, chemical ~2 s Strontium Sr-1 Batch Electrophoresis <1 min Strontium Sr-2 Batch Precipitation 3 min Strontium Sr-3 Batch Exchange Few min Strontium Sr-4 Batch Precipitation ~15 s Strontium Sr-5 Batch Precipitation ~1.7 min Tantalum Ta-1 Continuous Thermochromatography 0.1 to 0.2 s Tantalum Ta-2 Batch Extraction 3 to 5 min Tantalum Ta-3 Autobatch Extraction 10 to 20 s Technetium Tc-1 Batch Exchange 5 s Technetium Tc-2 Batch Volatilization 20 to 30 s Technetium Tc-3 Autobatch Extraction 2.5 s Technetium Tc-4 Autobatch Volatilization 1 s Technetium Tc-5 Continuous Extraction 7 s Technetium Tc-6 Autobatch Extraction 7.5 s Technetium Tc-7 Continuous Extraction 7 s Technetium Tc-8 Continuous Extraction 5 s Technetium Tc-9 Batch Precipitation 5 to 6 s Tellurium Te-1 Autobatch Volatilization 5.0 s Tellurium Te-2 Batch Exchange <1 min

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ULTRAFAST CHEMICAL SEPARATIONS Tellurium Te-3 Continuous Thermal decomposition 1 to 2 s Tellurium Te-4 Batch/continuous Volatilization ~20 s Tellurium (Se) Te-5 Batch Volatilization <10 s Tellurium Te-6 Batch Precipitation Few min Terbium Tb-1 Autobatch Extraction, ion exchange <3 min Thallium Tl-1 Batch Extraction 5 s Thallium Tl-2 Batch Ion exchange ~2 s Thallium Tl-3 Batch Thermochromatography 2 to 3 min Thallium Tl-4 Batch Precipitation 5 min Thulium Tm-1 Batch Extraction chromatography 11 min Tin Sn-1 Batch Volatilization ~10 s Tin Sn-2 Batch Volatilization 45 s Tin Sn-3 Batch Extraction ~20 s Tin Sn-4 Batch Extraction 45 s Tin Sn-5 Batch Precipitation ~45 s Tin Sn-6 Batch Volatilization 4 s Tin Sn-7 Batch Extraction Few min Tin Sn-8 Batch Extraction 3 min Tin Sn-9 Batch Exchange 2 min Tungsten W-1 Batch Thermochromatography ~5 min Tungsten W-2 Autobatch Ion exchange 10 to 20 s Uranium U-1 Continuous Extraction <1 min Uranium U-2 Continuous Extraction <1 min Uranium U-3 Batch Extraction 1.4 min Uranium U-4 Batch Extraction Few min Uranium U-5 Batch Extraction ~30 s Xenon Xe-1 Batch Emanation Few s Xenon Xe-2 Batch Emanation Few s Yttrium Y-1 Batch Extraction 100 s Yttrium Y-2 Autobatch Ion exchange 10 s Yttrium Y-3 Batch Extraction Few min Yttrium Y-4 Batch Extraction Few s Yttrium Y-5 Batch Precipitation 40 s Yttrium Y-6 Batch Precipitation Few min Yttrium Y-7 Batch Ion exchange Few min Z = 104 104-1 Autobatch Extraction 2 to 3 min Z = 104 104-2 Continuous Thermochromatography ~0.4 s Z = 104 104-3 Continuous Volatilization <1 s Z = 104 104-4 Batch Ion exchange 1 min Z = 105 105-1 Continuous Thermochromatography 0.1 to 0.2 s Z = 105 105-2 Continuous Thermochromatography 12 s Z = 105 105-3 Autobatch Extraction(HPLC) 55 s Z = 107 107-1 Continuous Thermochromatography <3 s Z = 113, 114 113, 114-1 Continuous/batch Extraction <1 min

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ULTRAFAST CHEMICAL SEPARATIONS Z = 118 (112 and 114) 118-1 Continuous Condensation Few s Zinc Zn-1 Continuous Thermochromatography ~1 s Zinc Zn-2 Batch Ion exchange ~1 min Zinc Zn-3 Batch Extraction ~1 min Zinc Zn-4 Batch Ion exchange 1 to 2 min Zirconium Zr-1 Autobatch Extraction 2.2 s Zirconium Zr-2 Continuous Extraction ~7 s Zirconium Zr-3 Autobatch Extraction 4.0 s Zirconium Zr-4 Batch Thermochromatography <3 min Zirconium Zr-5 Batch Precipitation Few min