tellurium is notable [Gil85]. The yields reported from the high-temperature ion sources also show low or no yield for many elements [Pio84]. For study of short-lived nuclides of these elements, either new ultrafast ion-source techniques or ultrafast chemical techniques are essential.
Isotope separators provide isobaric beams; ideally, an additional separation will provide the best possible sources for far-from-stability spectroscopy studies. Rudstam and coworkers have investigated the possibility of subjecting the isobaric beam obtained from an isotope separator to thermochromatographic separation [Wes69, Gra73, Rud73]. They utilized such a combination to study neutron-rich zinc and cadmium isotopes [Rud81]. In the future, gas-phase chemical separations can be expected to provide Z separation following A separation provided by on-line isotope separators. In addition, production of volatile species in target chambers with a variety of reactive gases may be studied to understand the chemical reactions taking place with energetic nuclear-reaction products.