References

Agostini, B.B. and D. Khan. 1986. Trends, situations and outlook for the world pulse economy. Pp. 461-482 in World Crops: Cool Season Food Legumes. R.J. Summerfield, ed. Boston: Kluwer Academic.

Brom, S., A.G. Santos, T. Stepkowsky, M. Flores, G. Davila, D. Romero, and R. Palacios. 1992. Different plasmids of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. phaseoli are required for optimal symbiotic performance. Jour. of Bact. 174:5183-5189.

Burns, R.C. and R.W.F. Hardy. 1975. Nitrogen Fixation in Bacteria and Higher Plants. New York: Springer-Verlag.

De Bruijn, F.J. and J.A. Downie. 1991. Biochemical and molecular studies: Symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Current Opinion in Biotechnology 2 184-192.

Döbereiner, J., V.M. Reis, M.A. Paula, and F. Olivares. 1993. Endophytic diazotrophs in sugarcane, cereals and tuber plants. Pp. 671-676 in New Horizons in Nitrogen Fixation. R. Palacios, J. Mora, and W.E. Newton, eds. Boston: Kluwer Academic.

Fischer, R.F. and S.R. Long. 1992. Rhizobium-plant signal exchange. Nature 357:655-670.

Gillis-Gonzales, M.A., G.S. Ditta, and D.R. Helinski. 1991. A heamoprotein with kinase activity encoded by the oxygen sensor of Rhizobium meliloti. Nature 150:170-172.

Hardy, R.W.F. 1993. Biological nitrogen fertilization: Present and future applications Pp. 109-117 in Agriculture and Environmental Challenges. J.P. Srivastava and H. Aldermans, eds. Proc. 13th Agric. Sector Symp. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.

Harwood, R. 1990. A history of sustainable agriculture. Pp. 4-19 in Sustainable Agriculture Systems. C.A. Edwards, R. Lal, P. Madden, R.H. Miller and G. House, eds. Ankeny, Iowa: Soil and Water Conservation Society.

Heinz, J. and D. Welsch. 1991. Economics of BNF with legume systems. Paper presented at a round table on application of BNF technology at the Biological Nitrogen Fixation Workshop, Banff, Alberta, Canada, 1-6 September, 1991.

Hungria, M., A.R.J. Eaglesham, and R.W.F. Hardy. 1992. Physiological comparisons of root and stem nodules of Aeschynomene scabra and Sesbania rostrata. Plant and Soil 139:7-13.



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Biological Nitrogen Fixation: RESEARCH CHALLENGES References Agostini, B.B. and D. Khan. 1986. Trends, situations and outlook for the world pulse economy. Pp. 461-482 in World Crops: Cool Season Food Legumes. R.J. Summerfield, ed. Boston: Kluwer Academic. Brom, S., A.G. Santos, T. Stepkowsky, M. Flores, G. Davila, D. Romero, and R. Palacios. 1992. Different plasmids of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. phaseoli are required for optimal symbiotic performance. Jour. of Bact. 174:5183-5189. Burns, R.C. and R.W.F. Hardy. 1975. Nitrogen Fixation in Bacteria and Higher Plants. New York: Springer-Verlag. De Bruijn, F.J. and J.A. Downie. 1991. Biochemical and molecular studies: Symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Current Opinion in Biotechnology 2 184-192. Döbereiner, J., V.M. Reis, M.A. Paula, and F. Olivares. 1993. Endophytic diazotrophs in sugarcane, cereals and tuber plants. Pp. 671-676 in New Horizons in Nitrogen Fixation. R. Palacios, J. Mora, and W.E. Newton, eds. Boston: Kluwer Academic. Fischer, R.F. and S.R. Long. 1992. Rhizobium-plant signal exchange. Nature 357:655-670. Gillis-Gonzales, M.A., G.S. Ditta, and D.R. Helinski. 1991. A heamoprotein with kinase activity encoded by the oxygen sensor of Rhizobium meliloti. Nature 150:170-172. Hardy, R.W.F. 1993. Biological nitrogen fertilization: Present and future applications Pp. 109-117 in Agriculture and Environmental Challenges. J.P. Srivastava and H. Aldermans, eds. Proc. 13th Agric. Sector Symp. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank. Harwood, R. 1990. A history of sustainable agriculture. Pp. 4-19 in Sustainable Agriculture Systems. C.A. Edwards, R. Lal, P. Madden, R.H. Miller and G. House, eds. Ankeny, Iowa: Soil and Water Conservation Society. Heinz, J. and D. Welsch. 1991. Economics of BNF with legume systems. Paper presented at a round table on application of BNF technology at the Biological Nitrogen Fixation Workshop, Banff, Alberta, Canada, 1-6 September, 1991. Hungria, M., A.R.J. Eaglesham, and R.W.F. Hardy. 1992. Physiological comparisons of root and stem nodules of Aeschynomene scabra and Sesbania rostrata. Plant and Soil 139:7-13.

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Biological Nitrogen Fixation: RESEARCH CHALLENGES Kim, J. and D.C. Rees. 1992. Structural models for the metal centers in the nitrogenase molybdenum-iron protein. Science 257:1677-1682. Ladha, J.K., T. George, and B.B. Bohlool, eds. 1992. Biological Nitrogen Fixation for Sustainable Agriculture. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers. Lima, E., R.M. Boddey, and J. Döbereiner. 1987. Quantification of biological nitrogen fixation associated with sugar cane using a 15N-aided nitrogen balance. Soil Biol. Biochem. 19:165-170. Lu, J., S. Temnykh, T.A. LaRue, and N.F. Weeden. 1993. Mapping symbiosis genes of pea. Pp. 360 in New Horizons in Nitrogen Fixation. R. Palacios, J. Mora, and W.E. Newton, eds. Boston: Kluwer Academic. Merrick, M.J. 1992. Regulation of nitrogen fixation genes in free-living and symbiotic bacteria. Pp. 835-876 in Biological Nitrogen Fixation. G. Stacey, R.H. Burris, and H.J. Evans, eds. New York: Chapman and Hall. Nap, J.P. and T. Bisseling. 1990. Developmental biology of a plant-prokaryote symbiosis: The legume root nodule. Science 250:948-954. National Research Council. 1989. Diet and Health. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 1993. Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the Humid Tropics. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Paula, M.A., S. Urquiaga, J.O. Sigueira, and J. Döbereiner. 1992. Synergistic effects of VAM fungi and diazotrophic bacteria on nutrition and growth of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas). Biol. Fertil. Soils 14:61-66. Peoples, M.B. and D.F. Herridge. 1990. Nitrogen fixation by legumes in tropical and subtropical agriculture Adv. Agron. 44:155-223. Pimentel, D., L.E. Hurd, A.C. Bellotti, M.J. Foster, I.N. Oka, O.D. Sholes, and R.J. Whitman. 1973. Food production and the energy crisis. Science 182:443. Rerkasem, B., K. Rerkasem, M.B. Peoples, D.F. Herridge, and F.J. Bergersen. 1988. Measurement of N2 fixation in maize (Zea mays L.)—ricebean (Vigna umbellata [Thumb.] Ohwi and Ohashi) intercrops. Plant and Soil 108:125-135. Roger, P.A. and I. Watanabe. 1986. Technologies for utilizing biological nitrogen fixation in wetland rice: Potentialities current usage and limiting factors. Fert. Res. 9:39-77. Sims, J.R., W.C. Lindemann, R.S. Smith, S.H. West, and L.R. Frederick. 1984. Biological nitrogen fixation research and technology assessment for Egypt: I. Scientists, publications, and extension. Jour. Agronomic Ed. 13:19-23. Smith, R.S. 1987. Production and quality control of inoculants. Pp. 391-411 in Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation Technology. G.E. Elkan, ed. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc. Smith, R.S. 1992. Legume inoculant formulation and application. Can. J. Microbial. 38:485-492. Tauer, L.W. 1989. Economic impact of future biological nitrogen fixation technologies in U.S. agriculture. Plant and Soil 119:261-270. Thies, J.E., P.W. Singleton, and B.B. Bohlool. 1991. Modeling symbiotic performance of introduced rhizobia in the field by use of indices of indigenous population size and nitrogen status of the soil. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57:29-37. Urquiaga, S., K.H.S. Cruz, and R.M. Boddey. 1992. Contribution of nitrogen fixation to sugar cane: Nitrogen-15 and nitrogen-balance estimates. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 56:105-114. Vitousek, P.M. and P.A. Matson. 1993. Agriculture, the global nitrogen cycle, and trace gas flux. Pp. 193-208 in Biogeochemistry of Global Change, Radiatively Active Trace Gases. New York: Chapman & Hall.