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OCR for page R7
Biological Nitrogen Fixation: RESEARCH CHALLENGES Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 Biological Nitrogen Fixation, 2 Research Grants Programs, 3 General Recommendation, 4 1 GLOBAL INVESTMENT AND RESEARCH NEEDS 5 Justification for Research Investment, 6 The Environment, 7 Global Nitrogen Cycle, 7 Groundwater Pollution, 8 Transportation of Anhydrous Ammonia, 8 Greenhouse Gas, 8 Energy, 9 Nutrition, 10 Sustainability, 12 Economic Benefit, 13 Social Impact, 14 Policy Constraints, 15 Research Directions, 15 Research Areas: Scientific Challenges, 16 Basic Biology, 18 Control of Nitrogenase, 20 Trees, 21 Rhizosphere Ecology, 21
OCR for page R8
Biological Nitrogen Fixation: RESEARCH CHALLENGES Fuels, 22 Industrial Uses, 23 Sustainable Agriculture and Forestry, 24 Legume Improvement, 25 Survival and Competition of Nitrogen-Fixing Organisms, 27 BNF Systems for Cereals, 28 Cropping Systems Using Nitrogen-Fixing Plants, 29 Culture Collections, 30 Inoculants, 30 Socioeconomics, 31 2 REVIEW OF GRANTS 33 Review Procedures, 34 Site Visits, 34 Mail Inquiry, 34 General Observations, 35 Impact of the Research Grants Programs, 37 Human Capital and Education, 37 The Environment, 39 Fuels, 40 Sustainable Agriculture, 40 Plants with Increased BNF Capacity, 41 Rhizobia that Improve BNF Capability, 41 Cropping Systems Using BNF, 42 Biological Disease Control in Legumes, 42 Use of Algae and Azolla to Supply Nitrogen to Rice, 43 Forestry, 43 Scientific Knowledge, 44 Social Benefits, 45 Development, 45 Benefit to the United States, 46 3 RECOMMENDATIONS 48 REFERENCES 50