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Anticipating Goals 2000 BOARD BULLETIN Anticipating Goals 2000 Standards, Assessment, and Public Policy Michael J. Feuer and Nancy Kober, editors Board on Testing and Assessment Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education National Research Council National Academy Press Washington, D.C. 1995
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Anticipating Goals 2000 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. The work of the Board on Testing and Assessment is supported by the U.S. Departments of Defense, Education, and Labor, through a grant administered by the Employment and Training Administration of the U.S. Department of Labor. Additional copies of this report are available from: Board on Testing and Assessment National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 Printed in the United States of America Copyright 1995 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
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Anticipating Goals 2000 BOARD ON TESTING AND ASSESSMENT Richard C. Atkinson (Chair), University of California, San Diego Constance B. Newman (Vice Chair), Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Richard J. Shavelson (Vice Chair), School of Education, Stanford University Laurie J. Bassi, Graduate Public Policy Program, Georgetown University David C. Berliner, College of Education, Arizona State University, Tempe Richard F. Elmore, Graduate School of Education, Harvard University Patricia M. Flynn, Graduate School of Business, Bentley College Edmund W. Gordon, Department of Psychology, City University of New York Sylvia T. Johnson, School of Education, Howard University Brigitte Jordan, Xerox Palo Alto Research Center and Institute for Research on Learning, Palo Alto, Calif. Carl F. Kaestle, Department of Education, University of Chicago Luis M. Laosa, Educational Testing Service, Princeton, N.J. Renee S. Lerche, Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, Mich. Alan M. Lesgold, Learning Research and Development Center, University of Pittsburgh Robert L. Linn, School of Education, University of Colorado, Boulder Miles A. Myers, National Council of Teachers of English, Urbana, Ill. James L. Outtz, Outtz and Associates, Washington, D.C. Neal W. Schmitt, Department of Psychology, Michigan State University, East Lansing Alan H. Schoenfeld, School of Education, University of California, Berkeley David S. Tatel, * Hogan and Hartson, Washington, D.C. Ewart A.C. Thomas, Department of Psychology, Stanford University Michael J. Feuer, Director Holly Wells, Administrative Assistant * Member, July 1993-October 1994
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Anticipating Goals 2000 This page in the original is blank.
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Anticipating Goals 2000 FOREWORD ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Few activities on the public agenda have as much long-term significance for the health and prosperity of American democracy as a sustained commitment to improvement of education and the life-long development of our precious human resources. The recent passage of the Goals 2000: Educate America Act and the reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act are watershed events in American education history. The principle that all children can learn to high standards is now the law of the land, and a new partnership has been forged between the federal government and the states and local school districts to help that vision become a reality. Core elements in the new partnership are voluntary standards of content, performance, and opportunity to learn, as well as new approaches to assessment of student achievement that will provide a stimulus for—and benchmarks of—continued educational progress. The vision of systemic change embodied in the Goals 2000 legislation now requires careful attention to the details of implementation: How will standards be set? How will assessments be designed? What will be the effects on children and teachers? How can standards and assessments become effective tools of learning, teaching, and system accountability? These and other questions are the subject of this bulletin, the first in a series anticipated by the Board on Testing and Assessment. The board is a relatively new entity of the National Research Council, which through its many committees and boards is deeply involved in applying scientific knowledge to education reform. As part of this commitment to improving education, the Board on Testing and Assessment will provide a scientific forum for increasing the understanding of the complex issues tied to standards, testing, and the assessment of human performance. Bruce Alberts, Chair National Research Council
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Anticipating Goals 2000 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ The Board on Testing and Assessment is grateful to the many individuals whose efforts made this bulletin, and the workshop it summarizes, possible. The board's work is supported by generous grants from the U.S. Departments of Defense, Education, and Labor. The continued interest and encouragement offered by Steve Sellman, Jane Arabian, Emerson Elliot, Gary Phillips, Alan Ginsburg, Valena Plisko, Raymond Uhalde, Robert Litman, and Donna Dye are very much appreciated. We also wish to thank the workshop presenters, whose remarks stimulated a rich and wide-ranging discussion: Gordon Ambach, Susan Fuhrman, Michael Kean, Dan Koretz, Shirley Malcom, and Phyllis McClure. During each segment of the workshop, the discussion was much enhanced by the insightful comments of board members who acted as discussants: David Berliner, Richard Elmore, Edmund Gordon, Sylvia Johnson, Alan Lesgold, Robert Linn, Alan Schoenfeld, David Tatel, and Ewart Thomas. Constance Newman, vice chair of the board, skillfully and gracefully guided the entire day's discussions. The workshop and this bulletin were conceived and executed by Michael Feuer, staff director of the board. In helping to translate the day 's proceedings into this summary, the work of Nancy Kober was exemplary. Several other National Research Council staff members read early drafts and provided helpful critiques: in particular, we thank Donna Gerardi, Linda Rosen, and Alexandra Wigdor. In addition, we wish to thank Steve Baldwin and Ray Fields for their careful reading and invaluable suggestions. Special words of thanks go to Christine McShane for her fine-tuning, to Leigh Coriale for her creative design, and to Eugenia Grohman for patiently guiding us through the review and publication process. Finally, we thank Holly Wells for her excellent administrative support.