A Review of the NOAA National Sea Grant College Program

Committee to Review the NOAA National Sea Grant College Program

Ocean Studies Board

Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.
1994



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A Review of the NOAA National Sea Grant College Program A Review of the NOAA National Sea Grant College Program Committee to Review the NOAA National Sea Grant College Program Ocean Studies Board Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1994

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A Review of the NOAA National Sea Grant College Program NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competence and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is the president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. This is a report of work supported by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration of the U.S. Department of Commerce. Cover art by Eileen Kiliman, a native of White Plains, New York, who currently lives in Front Royal, Virginia. Ms. Kiliman received a BBA in Marketing and a Certificate in Commercial Art from Pace University, in New York City. After 8 years representing graphic design firms, she converted her lifelong love of art into a full-time profession and has received a variety of commissions. Her style conveys a mixture of childhood observation and adult introspection. Copyright 1994 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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A Review of the NOAA National Sea Grant College Program COMMITTEE TO REVIEW THE NOAA NATIONAL SEA GRANT COLLEGE PROGRAM Arthur R.M. Nowell, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, Chairman John E. Flipse, Texas A&M University (ret.), Georgetown, SC Mary Virginia Hinchcliff, Rookery Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve, Naples, FL John J. Manzi, Atlantic LittleNeck ClamFarms, James Island, SC Michael Orbach, Duke University, Beaufort, NC Leonard Pietrafesa, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC Andrew R. Solow, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA Paul Stoffa, University of Texas, Austin, TX Karl K. Turekian, Yale University, New Haven, CT Staff Edward R. Urban, Jr., Study Director LaVoncyé Mallory, Project Assistant

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A Review of the NOAA National Sea Grant College Program OCEAN STUDIES BOARD William Merrell, Texas A&M University, Galveston, TX, Chairman Robert Berner, Yale University, New Haven, CT Donald Boesch, University of Maryland, Cambridge, MD Kenneth Brink, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA Gerald A. Cann, Independent Consultant, Rockville, MD Robert Cannon, Stanford University, Stanford, CA Biliana Cicin-Sain, University of Delaware, Newark, DE William Curry, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA Rana Fine, University of Miami, Miami, FL John E. Flipse, Texas A&M University (ret.), Georgetown, SC Michael Freilich, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR Gordon Greve, Amoco Production Company, Houston, TX Robert Knox, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA Arthur R.M. Nowell, University of Washington, Seattle, WA Peter Rhines, University of Washington, Seattle, WA Frank Richter, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL Brian Rothschild, University of Maryland, Solomons, MD Thomas C. Royer, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK Lynda Shapiro, University of Oregon, Charleston, OR Sharon Smith, University of Miami, Miami, FL Paul Stoffa, University of Texas, Austin, TX Staff Mary Hope Katsouros, Director Edward R. Urban, Jr., Staff Officer Robin Peuser, Research Associate David Wilmot, Research Associate Mary Pechacek, Administrative Associate LaVoncyé Mallory, Senior Secretary Curtis Taylor, Office Assistant

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A Review of the NOAA National Sea Grant College Program COMMISSION ON GEOSCIENCES, ENVIRONMENT, AND RESOURCES M. Gordon Wolman, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, Chairman Patrick R. Atkins, Aluminum Company of America, Pittsburgh, PA Edith Brown Weiss, Georgetown University Law Center, Washington, DC Peter S. Eagleson, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA Edward A. Frieman, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA W. Barclay Kamb, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA Jack E. Oliver, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY Frank L. Parker, Vanderbilt/Clemson University, Nashville, TN Raymond A. Price, Queen's University at Kingston, Canada Thomas C. Schelling, University of Maryland, College Park, MD Larry L. Smarr, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL Steven M. Stanley, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD Victoria J. Tschinkel, Landers and Parsons, Tallahassee, FL Warren Washington, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO Staff Stephen Rattien, Executive Director Stephen D. Parker, Associate Executive Director Morgan Gopnik, Assistant Executive Director Jeanette Spoon, Administrative Officer Sandi Fitzpatrick, Administrative Associate Robin L. Allen, Senior Project Assistant

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A Review of the NOAA National Sea Grant College Program This page in the original is blank.