Maximizing U.S. Interests in Science and Technology Relations with Japan

Report of the Defense Task Force

Committee on Japan

Office of Japan Affairs

Office of International Affairs

National Research Council

National Academy Press
Washington, D.C.
1995



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Maximizing U.S. Interests in Science and Technology Relations with Japan: Report of the Defense Task Force Maximizing U.S. Interests in Science and Technology Relations with Japan Report of the Defense Task Force Committee on Japan Office of Japan Affairs Office of International Affairs National Research Council National Academy Press Washington, D.C. 1995

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Maximizing U.S. Interests in Science and Technology Relations with Japan: Report of the Defense Task Force NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievement of engineers. Dr. Harold Liebowitz is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr. Harold Liebowitz are chairman and vice-chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. This project was made possible with funding support from the U.S. Department of Defense. Available from: Office of Japan Affairs National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20418 Copyright © 1995 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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Maximizing U.S. Interests in Science and Technology Relations with Japan: Report of the Defense Task Force DEDICATION Donald J. Atwood was a member of the authoring committee until his death in April 1994. Through his enthusiasm, active participation in committee meetings, and interactions with officials in Japan, Don made a major contribution during the early months of the study. His was a unique perspective on technology and policy issues based on a long and outstanding career at General Motors as well as his service as Deputy Secretary of Defense. The Defense Task Force was fortunate to have benefited from Don’s experience and wisdom, and will miss his warmth and graciousness.

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Maximizing U.S. Interests in Science and Technology Relations with Japan: Report of the Defense Task Force DEFENSE TASK FORCE Gerald P. Dinneen, Chairman National Academy of Engineering John E. Endicott Georgia Institute of Technology Daniel J. Fink D. J. Fink Associates Robert A. Fuhrman Lockheed Corp. (retired) Lee Kapor GE Aircraft Engines (retired) William Z. Lemnios MIT Lincoln Laboratory (retired) Mike M. Mochizuki The Brookings Institution William T. Pendley Air War College Maxine L. Savitz Allied Signal Aerospace Co. Ex Officio Member Richard J. Samuels Massachusetts Institute of Technology

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Maximizing U.S. Interests in Science and Technology Relations with Japan: Report of the Defense Task Force COMMITTEE ON JAPAN Erich Bloch, Chairman Council on Competitiveness Richard J. Samuels, Vice-Chairman Massachusetts Institute of Technology Sherwood L. Boehlert U.S. House of Respresentatives Lewis M. Branscomb Harvard University G. Steven Burrill Burrill & Craves Lawrence W. Clarkson The Boeing Co. Mildred S. Dresselhaus Massachusetts Institute of Technology David A. Duke Corning, Inc. Daniel J. Fink D. J. Fink Associates, Inc. John O. Haley University of Washington Jim F. Martin Rockwell International Joseph A. Massey Dartmouth College Mike M. Mochizuki The Brookings Institution Hugh T. Patrick Columbia University John D. Rockefeller IV United States Senate Robert A. Scalapino University of California, Berkeley Susan C. Schwab University of Maryland Ex Officio Members: Harold K. Forsen, Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering F. Sherwood Rowland, Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Sciences

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Maximizing U.S. Interests in Science and Technology Relations with Japan: Report of the Defense Task Force OFFICE OF JAPAN AFFAIRS Since 1985 the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering have engaged in a series of high-level discussions on advanced technology and the international environment with a counterpart group of Japanese scientists, engineers, and industrialists. One outcome of these discussions was a deepened understanding of the importance of promoting a more balanced two-way flow of people and information between the research and development systems in the two countries. Another result was a broader recognition of the need to address the science and technology policy issues increasingly central to a changing U.S.-Japan relationship. In 1987 the National Research Council, the operating arm of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering, authorized first-year funding for the Office of Japan Affairs (OJA). This program element of the Office of International Affairs was formally established in the spring of 1988. The primary objectives of OJA are to provide a resource to the Academy complex and the broader U.S. science and engineering communities for information on Japanese science and technology, to promote better working relationships between the technical communities in the two countries by developing a process of deepened dialogue on issues of mutual concern, and to address policy issues surrounding a changing U.S.-Japan science and technology relationship. Staff Alexander De Angelis, Director Thomas Arrison, Staff Officer Maki Fife, Senior Program Assistant

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