between the United States and Japan” by the National Academy of Sciences.2 This report by the Defense Task Force focuses on U.S. national security interests at stake in science and technology relations with Japan, and was undertaken with support from the Department of Defense. In addition to this stand-alone report, the work of the Defense Task Force will be integrated with that of the Committee on Japan’s Competitiveness Task Force into a final report supported by the Departments of Commerce, Energy, and State as well as the National Science Foundation. The final report will develop an overall framework for maximizing U.S. interests in science and technology relations with Japan.

How should the United States manage its scientific and technological collaboration with Japan so that its national security interests are protected and advanced through this interaction in the years ahead? That is the critical question addressed by this study. Reaching conclusions and developing recommendations have involved the examination of several important issues.

One key issue is the future of the U.S.-Japan security alliance and the evolution of U.S. and Japanese defense postures and capabilities. Particularly in defense technology cooperation, patterns of technology development, application, and transfer between the two countries have been profoundly influenced by the security environment. An understanding of the possible directions the alliance might take in the future and the likely implications will be necessary to set and achieve U.S. goals in science and technology interaction. During the time that the task force has been at work, future options for defense and security policy have been actively debated in both the United States and Japan. While many uncertainties remain, the outlines of these debates have become clearer in recent months. These questions are examined in Chapter 2.

A second key issue involves the specific goals and management of U.S.-Japan cooperation in defense technology cooperation, as well as interaction in dual-use technologies, mainly areas of commercial technology with defense applications.3 The committee examined the current technological capabilities and trajectories of the two countries, the historical experience with various forms of cooperation, and the likely future needs of the two countries in terms of defense systems and underlying technologies. From this examination the committee has drawn conclusions on how defense and dual-use technology cooperation might be effectively managed in the future, including possible areas and mechanisms for U.S.-Japan cooperation and likely obstacles to achieving U.S. goals. These issues are examined in Chapters Chapter 3, Chapter 4, and Chapter 5.

During the course of the study, the Department of Defense has pursued its Technology-for-Technology (TFT) initiative with Japan.4 The Defense Task Force has had an opportunity to learn about TFT and about other initiatives and collaborative programs that are being undertaken. Taken together, these important efforts on the part of the DoD and other U.S. agencies illustrate the significant challenges and opportunities we face in structuring scientific and technological


Committee on Armed Services, United States Senate, National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Years 1992 and 1993 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1991).


Dual-use technology is an increasingly important factor in overall U.S. strategy toward maintaining the technology base for future weapons systems and in thinking about U.S.-Japan relationships. The term “dual-use” can be applied in discussing several distinct sorts of issues. In this report we mainly refer to dual-use in two contexts (1) commercial technologies that can be used in military applications (such as flat panel displays and many other electronic components) and (2) broad areas of technological development and application that can have military and civilian uses (such as transport aircraft and space). To avoid confusion, we specify which context is being discussed throughout the report.


Although not the subject of an official policy statement, this initiative has been discussed by DoD officials in various public fora. See Japan Economic Institute, “Washington Pushes for Expanded U.S.-Japan Defense Technology Exchanges,” JEI Report, April 8, 1994.

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