MANAGING THE SPACE SCIENCES

Committee on the Future of Space Science

Space Studies Board

Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.
1995



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MANAGING THE SPACE SCIENCES MANAGING THE SPACE SCIENCES Committee on the Future of Space Science Space Studies Board Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1995

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MANAGING THE SPACE SCIENCES NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Harold Liebowitz is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr. Harold Liebowitz are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. Support for this project was provided by Contract NASW 4627 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Copyright 1995 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Copies of this report are available from Space Studies Board National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 Printed in the United States of America

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MANAGING THE SPACE SCIENCES COMMITTEE ON THE FUTURE OF SPACE SCIENCE Steering Group JOHN A. ARMSTRONG, IBM Corporation (retired), Chair ANTHONY W. ENGLAND, University of Michigan DANIEL J. FINK, D.J. Fink Associates, Inc. URSULA W. GOODENOUGH, Washington University JOHN M. HEDGEPETH, Digisim Corporation JEANNE E. PEMBERTON, University of Arizona WILLIAM PRESS, Harvard College Observatory P. BUFORD PRICE, University of California, Berkeley ROLAND W. SCHMITT, Clifton Park, New York GUYFORD STEVER, Washington, D.C. JAMES WYNGAARDEN, Washington, D.C. MARC S. ALLEN, Study Director BETTY C. GUYOT, Administrative Officer CARMELA J. CHAMBERLAIN, Senior Project Assistant NATHANIEL B. COHEN, Consultant Task Group on Alternative Organizations DANIEL J. FINK, D.J. Fink Associates, Inc., Chair MARTIN BLUME, Brookhaven National Laboratory JOHN F. CASSIDY, United Technologies Research Center ROBERT S. COOPER, Atlantic Aerospace Electronics Corporation GERALD P. DINNEEN, National Academy of Engineering HAROLD B. FINGER, Potomac, Maryland NOEL W. HINNERS, Lockheed Martin Astronautics THOMAS E. MALONE, Potomac, Maryland NORINE E. NOONAN, Florida Institute of Technology JAMES R. THOMPSON, jr., Orbital Sciences Corporation ARTHUR B.C. WALKER, Stanford University SIDNEY C. WOLFF, National Optical Astronomy Observatories RICHARD C. HART, Senior Project Officer CARMELA J. CHAMBERLAIN, Senior Project Assistant ERIN C. HATCH, Research Assistant NATHANIEL B. COHEN, Consultant

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MANAGING THE SPACE SCIENCES Task Group on Research Prioritization ROLAND W. SCHMITT, Clifton Park, New York, Chair WILLIAM F. BRINKMAN, AT&T Bell Laboratories LARRY W. ESPOSITO, University of Colorado DAVID J. McCOMAS, Los Alamos National Laboratory CHRISTOPHER F. McKEE, University of California, Berkeley MORTON B. PANISH, Springfield, New Jersey CARLÉ M. PIETERS, Brown University RUDI SCHMID, University of California, San Francisco EUGENE B. SKOLNIKOFF, Massachusetts Institute of Technology RICHARD C. HART, Senior Project Officer CARMELA J. CHAMBERLAIN, Senior Project Assistant ERIN C. HATCH, Research Assistant NATHANIEL B. COHEN, Consultant Task Group on Technology ANTHONY W. ENGLAND, University of Michigan, Co-chair JOHN M. HEDGEPETH, Digisim Corporation, Co-chair JOSEPH P. ALLEN, Space Industries International, Inc. ROBERT P. CAREN, Lockheed Martin Corporation (retired) JOHN J. DONEGAN, U.S. Navy (retired) SIMON OSTRACH, Case Western Reserve University JUDITH PIPHER, University of Rochester ALFRED SCHOCK, Orbital Sciences Corporation HENRY PLOTKIN, NASA (retired), Technical Advisor NOEL ELDRIDGE, Project Officer CARMELA J. CHAMBERLAIN, Senior Project Assistant

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MANAGING THE SPACE SCIENCES SPACE STUDIES BOARD CLAUDE R. CANIZARES Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Chair JOHN A. ARMSTRONG IBM Corporation (retired) LAWRENCE BOGORAD Harvard University JOSEPH A. BURNS * Cornell University JOHN J. DONEGAN U.S. Navy (retired) ANTHONY W. ENGLAND University of Michigan DANIEL J. FINK D.J. Fink Associates, Inc. MARTIN E. GLICKSMAN Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute RONALD GREELEY Arizona State University BILL GREEN former member, U.S. House of Representatives HAROLD J. GUY * University of California, San Diego NOEL W. HINNERS Lockheed Martin Astronautics JANET G. LUHMANN University of California, Berkeley JOHN H. McELROY University of Texas, Arlington ROBERTA BALSTAD MILLER Consortium for International Earth Sciences Information Network BERRIEN MOORE III University of New Hampshire MARY JANE OSBORN University of Connecticut Health Center SIMON OSTRACH Case Western Reserve University CARLÉ M. PIETERS Brown University JUDITH PIPHER * University of Rochester MARCIA J. RIEKE University of Arizona ROLAND SCHMITT Clifton Park, New York JOHN A. SIMPSON University of Chicago ARTHUR B.C. WALKER Jr., * Stanford University MARC S. ALLEN Director * Former member.

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MANAGING THE SPACE SCIENCES COMMISSION ON PHYSICAL SCIENCES, MATHEMATICS, AND APPLICATIONS ROBERT J. HERMANN United Technologies Corporation, Chair STEPHEN L. ADLER Institute for Advanced Study PETER M. BANKS Environmental Research Institute of Michigan SYLVIA T. CEYER Massachusetts Institute of Technology L. LOUIS HEGEDUS W.R. Grace and Co. JOHN E. HOPCROFT Cornell University RHONDA J. HUGHES Bryn Mawr College SHIRLEY A. JACKSON U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission KENNETH I. KELLERMANN National Radio Astronomy Observatory KEN KENNEDY Rice University HANS MARK University of Texas, Austin THOMAS A. PRINCE California Institute of Technology JEROME SACKS National Institute for Statistical Sciences L.E. SCRIVEN University of Minnesota LEON T. SILVER California Institute of Technology CHARLES P. SLICHTER University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign ALVIN W. TRIVELPIECE Oak Ridge National Laboratory SHMUEL WINOGRAD IBM T.J. Watson Research Center CHARLES A. ZRAKET The MITRE Corporation (retired) NORMAN METZGER Executive Director