and prediction, atmospheric modeling and prediction, high-latitude dynamics, tactical environmental support, marine geology and geophysics, and marine meteorology.

Acoustic modeling and tomography/imaging play important roles in the development of active and passive systems for mine and antisubmarine warfare. Electro-optical and electromagnetic (EO/EM) clutter models, automatic target recognition, and techniques related to adapting space sensor information are used in algorithms for environmental models. Nonacoustic undersea sensors and related signal processors are under development for application to undersea, mine, and expeditionary warfare. New technology related to ship tracking is being developed. Coastal ocean models and enhanced bathymetric mapping techniques aid in coastal operations and navigation. New acoustic sources and arrays allow better environmental characterization and target recognition. The development of specialized research platforms, including remotely operated vehicles, should result in increased capabilities in littoral areas. The development of technologies for undersea and shallow water acoustic sensors will aid in tactical data acquisition, offensive mining, mine countermeasures, and explosive ordnance disposal. New optical technologies are being used to examine ocean surface and marine boundary layers for three-dimensional modeling of the dynamics of marine populations, fate and transport of pollutants, and natural environmental changes in the ocean.

COMPUTER MODELING

ONR, primarily through activities at NRL, has developed an impressive ability to provide real-time predictions for the Navy using global, regional, and (to a lesser extent) coastal modeling. Predictions using high-resolution, coupled atmospheric-ocean models are being developed. These models can predict circulation and atmospheric conditions in selected local areas (e.g., off the west coast of the United States). They make use of the most powerful computational platforms available. A wealth of software has been developed to (1) visualize model predictions, (2) manage large volumes of data, (3) integrate the data with the model predictions (e.g., data assimilation), (4) efficiently transfer and tailor the data to the user’s needs, and (5) verify the model predictions. These integrated modeling and data management systems represent the state of the art.

The primary academic application for atmospheric and oceanic circulation models involves research into global and regional ocean circulation and meteorology. Research into air-sea interaction and its influence on long-term climatic change represents another important academic application. In the commercial sector the most important user groups include environmental and engineering consulting companies (e.g., firms interested in pollutant transport and fate modeling, circulation, physical forcing on offshore structures, dispersion of routine discharges, and disposal of wastes at sea), data brokers and value-added suppliers



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