vided by the federal government, and cooperative agreements involving cost sharing (e.g., Technology Reinvestment Programs, called TRPs). These efforts, in general, focus on defense needs. Some of the technologies developed, however, may have potential application in the nonmilitary sector. The industry partner does, in those instances, have a direct opportunity to market the technology.

Small Business Innovation Research—The Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program is intended to encourage small business to meet specific needs identified by federal agencies. The process often involves a Navy laboratory or headquarters component working with a small business that accomplishes technology transfer. The business retains the option for commercializing the product for use in other sectors.

Manufacturing Technology Centers of Excellence—Manufacturing Technology Centers of Excellence facilitate the development of manufacturing technology to address Navy applications. The centers provide a direct opportunity for industry to collaborate and exploit technology developments for commercial applications.

Industrial Consortia—Industrial consortia may involve collaboration by several competitors to advance the overall capability of industry in a given field. A successful example is the industrial consortium associated with the Navy Powertrain Technology Center, in which both defense and commercial industries participate.

Conferences and Symposia—Technical conferences and journals are excellent opportunities to share research results and transfer technology. Such outlets form the basis for documenting the evolving state of scientific knowledge related to ONR-supported programs.

Patents and Licensing Agreements—Patents held by the government can be exploited for commercial application through licensing arrangements. Technology is therefore made available while generating revenue.

Coordinating Committees—ONR uses coordinating committees as a formal mechanism for working with other government agencies (e.g., the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). These committees provide an opportunity for mutual planning and benefit.

TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER AT NASA

To achieve a better understanding of the variety of mechanisms used to facilitate technology transfer in other federal agencies, the committee examined



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