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Expanding the Uses of Naval Ocean Science and Technology Expanding the Uses of Naval Ocean Science and Technology Committee on Alternative Uses of Naval Technology Ocean Studies Board Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1996
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Expanding the Uses of Naval Ocean Science and Technology NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. This report and the committee were supported by a contract with the Office of Naval Research, Department of the Navy. The views expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsor. Cover art by Carrie Mallory. Ms. Mallory received her Bachelor of Fine Arts degree from Cooper Union. She draws on the natural world and the effects of age on man-made objects for many of her themes. She has exhibited at a number of juried shows in the Northern Virginia area. The art for this cover was inspired by a pile of rusting objects in a shipyard at Lunenberg, Nova Scotia. Copies of this report are available from Ocean Studies Board, National Research Council, 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20418. Copyright 1996 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America.
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Expanding the Uses of Naval Ocean Science and Technology COMMITTEE ON ALTERNATIVE USES OF NAVAL TECHNOLOGY GERALD A. CANN (Chairman), Senior Advisor to the Executive Office, Raytheon Company, Arlington, Virginia MARY ALTALO, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California WILLIAM BERRY, Applied Remote Technology, San Diego, California CHARLES BLACK, Mardela Corporation, Woodside, California ANTHONY CALIO, Hughes Information Technology Company, Reston, Virginia EDWARD LISZKA, Pennsylvania State University, State College WILLIAM SILCOX, Chevron Corporation (retired), Incline Village, Nevada MALCOLM SPAULDING, University of Rhode Island, Kingston GLENN STONER, University of Virginia, Charlottesville Staff ELIZABETH TURNER, Study Director DAN WALKER, Program Officer LAVONCYÉ MALLORY, Project Assistant
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Expanding the Uses of Naval Ocean Science and Technology OCEAN STUDIES BOARD WILLIAM MERRELL (Chairman), The H. John Heinz Center for Science, Economics, and the Environment, Washington, D.C. GERALD A. CANN, Senior Advisor to the Executive Office, Raytheon Company, Arlington, Virginia WILLIAM CURRY, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts ELLEN DRUFFEL, University of California, Irvine RANA FINE, University of Miami, Florida JOHN E. FLIPSE, Independent Consultant, Georgetown, South Carolina SUSAN HANNA, Oregon State University, Corvallis JOHN E. HOBBIE, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, Massachusetts EILEEN E. HOFMANN, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia ROBERT B. GAGOSIAN, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts ROBERT KNOX, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California LOUIS L. LANZEROTTI, AT&T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, New Jersey JOHN MAGNUSON, University of Wisconsin, Madison B. GREGORY MITCHELL, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California ARTHUR NOWELL, University of Washington, Seattle TERRANCE J. QUINN, University of Alaska, Fairbanks C. BARRY RALEIGH, University of Hawaii, Honolulu JAMES P. RAY, Shell Oil Company, Houston, Texas PETER RHINES, University of Washington, Seattle BRIAN ROTHSCHILD, University of Massachusetts, Dartmouth THOMAS C. ROYER, University of Alaska, Fairbanks LYNDA SHAPIRO, University of Oregon, Charleston SHARON SMITH, University of Miami, Florida PAUL STOFFA, University of Texas, Austin Staff MARY HOPE KATSOUROS, Director EDWARD R. URBAN, JR., Program Officer DAN WALKER, Program Officer ELIZABETH TURNER, Research Associate MARY ENG, Administrative Associate LORA TAYLOR, Senior Project Assistant LAVONCYÉ MALLORY, Senior Secretary HEATHER BLOUGH, Project Assistant CURTIS TAYLOR, Office Assistant
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Expanding the Uses of Naval Ocean Science and Technology COMMISSION ON GEOSCIENCES, ENVIRONMENT, AND RESOURCES M. GORDON WOLMAN (Chairman), The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland PATRICK R. ATKINS, Aluminum Company of America, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania JAMES P. BRUCE, Canadian Climate Program Board, Ottawa, Ontario WILLIAM L. FISHER, University of Texas, Austin GEORGE M. HORNBERGER, University of Virginia, Charlottesville DEBRA KNOPMAN, Progressive Foundation, Washington, D.C. PERRY L. MCCARTY, Stanford University, California JUDITH E. MCDOWELL, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts S. GEORGE PHILANDER, Princeton University, New Jersey RAYMOND A. PRICE, Queen’s University at Kingston, Ontario THOMAS C. SCHELLING, University of Maryland, College Park ELLEN SILBERGELD, University of Maryland Medical School, Baltimore STEVEN M. STANLEY, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland VICTORIA J. TSCHINKEL, Landers and Parsons, Tallahassee, Florida Staff STEPHEN RATTIEN, Executive Director STEPHEN D. PARKER, Associate Executive Director MORGAN GOPNIK, Assistant Executive Director GREGORY SYMMES, Reports Officer JAMES MALLORY, Administrative Officer SANDI FITZPATRICK, Administrative Associate SUSAN SHERWIN, Project Assistant
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Expanding the Uses of Naval Ocean Science and Technology The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Harold Liebowitz is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr. Harold Liebowitz are chairman and vice-chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.
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Expanding the Uses of Naval Ocean Science and Technology Preface As the United States adjusts to the end of the Cold War, global competitiveness is joining military preparedness as a national goal. The federal government is striving to achieve the proper balance between defense and domestic spending; consequently, greater emphasis is being placed on maximizing return on federal investment in research and development. Any activity that leads to more productive use of U.S. research dollars leads to a healthier economy and strengthens the national defense. The Department of the Navy is therefore exploring the nonmilitary benefits of naval technology. As discussed in a report of the National Research Council’s Ocean Studies Board (OSB) Oceanography in the Next Decade: Building New Partnerships: Economic prosperity in a global marketplace depends increasingly on technical and scientific applications. There is concern about the ability of the United States to compete with Europe and Asia. Basic and applied research in the marine sciences and engineering is necessary to achieve and maintain a competitive position in a host of fields, including marine biotechnology, aquaculture, hydrocarbon and mineral exploration and production, maritime transportation, fisheries, treatment and disposal of waste, and freshwater extraction. (National Research Council, 1992a, p. 3-4) Effective military use of the considerable scientific and engineering resources represented by the Office of Naval Research (ONR), Department of the Navy, relies on adequate and timely transfer of research and technology to the fleet. To maximize the nonmilitary benefits of naval research, similar accomplishments must be achieved in domestic technology transfer.
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Expanding the Uses of Naval Ocean Science and Technology To help ONR improve its technology transfer efforts, James DeCorpo, Director of the Ocean, Atmosphere, and Space Department of ONR, requested that the OSB review the status of technology research in ONR laboratories and recommend programs that would serve to meet the science and technology needs of the Navy, other agencies, industry, and academia. The OSB formed the Committee on Alternative Uses of Naval Technology in response to this request. The committee was further requested to produce a report detailing (1) how ONR now interacts with industry, (2) how those avenues of interaction may be improved, and (3) future areas of technology research that may be appropriate for ONR to pursue, which might have applications to interests outside the Navy. The committee did not discuss specific areas of basic research for ONR to pursue in the future (the OSB has provided such advice in more than 12 recent reports to ONR), but rather focused on establishing future technology needs of the nonmilitary industrial marine sector. This report, Expanding the Uses of Naval Ocean Science and Technology, offers advice that should lead to a more effective transfer of technology from ONR-sponsored scientists and laboratories to the nonmilitary marine sector. More effective use of U.S. defense research dollars could serve to strengthen scientific research, marine transportation, economic development, and global competitiveness. WILLIAM MERRELL Ocean Studies Board, Chairman