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APPENDIX C BACKGROUND MATERIALS FOR THE SEMINAR The first 15 items listed in this appendix were mailed to all parti cipants prior to the St. Michaels seminar. The items are listed in the order of the conference sessions for which they provided background information; notes explain their relevance to the session topic. The last item is a reading list the staff provided for the CASH participants. Seen Medic: 1980 Workshop on Applying Cognitive Psychology to Recall Problems of the National Crime Survey 1. Report of the workshop, Jeffrey C. Moore, rapporteur. Although our seminar will have a broader focus and will look at applications largely in health surveys rather than in crime surveys, in a sense we will be picking up where this workshop left off. Several of the seminar participants took part in the 1980 workshop. 5~ To: Background Paper No. ~ Tourangeau, R. (1983) Cognitive Science and Survey Methods. This paper was written specifically for the seminar. Items 3, 4, and 5 were recommended by Tourangeau as farther background on areas of cognitive science most relevant to survey design. (The reprised version of. Tourangeau's paper appears in Appendix A.) 3. Linton, M. (1982) Transformations of memory in everyday life. In tI. Neisser, ea., Memory Observed 77-91. The author describes an experiment in memory for everyday events; the experiment (on the author' ~ own personal memories) covers several years. 4. Abelson, R. (1981) The psychological status of the script concept. A_~ 36:715-729. Summary, by one of the main proponents of' the Rescripts concept, of the main evidence for the influence of scripts on memory and comprehension. 157

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158 5. Nisbett, R., and Ross, L. (1980) _ _ . Engiewood Cliffs, Ad.: Prentice Hall. Chapter 2. An introduction to work on the ~representativeness" and Availability heuristics. Session Tools: An Introduction to CAt] 6. Roshwalb et al. (1979) New Methods of Telephone Interviewing: A S/CATI. Paper presented at XXIII ESQMAR Congress. Describer the CATI (computer-assisted telephone interviewing) system that will be available for demonstration and use at our conference. 7. Rustemeyer et al. (1978) Computer-As~isted Telephone Interviewing: Design Considerations. Presented at the annual meeting of the American Statistical Association. ~ general introduction to CATI systems: their advantages, the precise role of computer assistance, the basic elements Or a system, and some unresolved issues. A particular system is also described. Session ToDic: Introduction to HIS (Health Interview Survey) 8. National Center for Health Statistics (1982) ,,,,,,, A,,, the National Health Interview Survey United States, 1981, Ser. 10, No. 141. A note attached to the cover of this publication identifies the sections that should be of particular interest to seminar participants. 9. Bureau of the Census. i_ _ Ail (excerpts) . The excerpts are: ~ ~ ~ the table of contents for Parts A, D, and E of the manual (other parts are not relevant to the interview), and (2) Part D, Chapter 2, General Instructions for Using the HIS Questionnaires. Host participants should already have the copies of the HIS core questionnaire and supplement that were completed when they were interviewed; additional blank copies will be brought to the meeting. One or two complete copies Or Parts A, D, and E of the manual will also be available. _ 10. National Center for Health Statistics (1977) ~ -~r `~ ! ~ o~ ne 1~ ~~ 00 I Abed lo , Ser. 2, No. 69. Describes the design and results or several methodological studies, most or which were carried out by the Survey Research Center of the University of Michigan for the NC B in the 1960~. The studies were a. . . designed to test the effectiveness of certain questionnaire design and interviewing techniques used in the collection of data on health events in household interviews and to investigate the role of behaviors, attitudes, perceptions and information levels of both the respondent and the interviewer.

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159 ~3~: Background Paper No. 2 if. Bradburn, N., and Danis, C. ~1983) Potential Contributions of Cognitive Sciences to Survey Questionnaire Design. This paper was written specifically for the seminar. (The revised version appears in Appendix A.) I: Other NCHS Surveys 12. National Center for Health Statistics ( 1981 ) ~ I, Ser. 1, No. 16. See note on cover that identities relevant parts of this report. Session Topic: The General Social Survey 13. National Opinion Research Center, University of Chicago ~ 1982) A short description of the survey. We will have available at the seminar a copy of the ~ ~1972-1982), which includes all of the survey questions used during thin period and marginal totals for each item in each round of the survey. Sew TO c: The National Election Survey 14. Three items are included: a. Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan. ~ . A one-page description of the program. b. The questionnaire $-or the 1982 fall-winter cross-section inters iew. Respondent booklet used in conjunction with the questionnaire, Seer ToDic: Validity Checks 15. Marquis, R. ~1978) Inferring health inters few response bias from imperf eat record checks . ~ I. American Statistical Association. Discusses some problems in determining ~truth" in a survey context. A paper based on a presentation by Marquis at the St. Michaels seminar appears in Appendix A.

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160 16. The following list of selected readings in cognitive sciences and survey methods, prepared by the CASH staff, contains items that were considered for mailing to all seminar participants, but had to be omitted in order to stay within reasonable size limits. It was not meant to be comprehensive in any Sense; there are more complete listings of relevant items in the reference lists for the two background papers prepared for the seminar. A. Books Bradburn, N.M., Sudman, S. and Associates (1979) Imorov[~c ~ . San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Di~kstra, W., and van der Zouwen, J. (1982) ~~e sehavic~ & n cue s~v rev. New York: Academic Press . Hogarth' R.M.' ed. (1982) Levi 8 1~ 1~_~ a_ ease e_ Cor~13tercv. New Directions for the Methodology of Social and Behavioral Science, No. 11. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Moss, L., and Goldstein, H., eds. (1979) _ Social Survey. Studies in Education (new series) 9. Windsor, Ontario: NFER Publishing Company. Payne, S.L. (1951) ~ ~ ~ _ ~ J~L~YL12~ t1~ Princeton, N.~.: Princeton University Press. inhuman. H. . and Preener. S. ( 1q811 Ouestions and An`3`rer.s in L=_~ =~ Context. New York: Academic Press. Sudman, S., and Bradburn, N.M. (1974) ~~DQu~ tEL elm :D 9~rz~. Chicano: A1 dine. - ~, _ ~ _ Sud man, S.' and Bradburn, N.~. (1982) Asking ~stior,~ ~ ~ . San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. B. ~ Series 2, Data Evaluation and Methods Research. The following publications in this series describe various methodological studies related to the National Health Interview Survey. No. 6 (1g65) Reporting of Hospitalization in the Health interview Survey. No. 7 (1965) Health Interview Responses Compared with Medical Records. No. ~ (1965) Comparison of Hospitalization Reporting in Three Survey Procedures. No. 16 (1966) Identifying Problem Drinkers in a Household Health Survey.

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161 No. 18 (1966) Interview Responses on Health Insurance Compared with Insurance Records. No. 23 (1967) Interview Data on Chronic Conditions Compared with Information Derived from Medical Records. No. 26 (1968) The Influence of Interviewer and Respondent Psychological and Behavioral Variables on the Reporting in Household Interviews. No. 41 (1971) Effects of Some Experimental Interviewing Techniques on Reporting. No. 45 (1972) Reporting of Health Events in Household Interviews: Effects of Reinforcement, Question Length, and Reinterviews. No. 48 (1972) Interviewing Methods in the Health Interview Survey. (Reports on a split-panel test with two substantially different versions of the HIS questionnaire.) No. 49 (1972) Reporting Health Events in Household Interviews: Effects of an Extensive Questionnaire and a Diary Procedure. No. 50 (1972) Optimum Recall Period for Reporting Persons InJured in Motor Vehicle Accidents. No. 54 (1973) Quality Control and Measurement of Non.~pling Error in the Health Interview Survey. No. 57 (1973) Net Differences in Interview Data on Chronic Conditions and Information Derived from Medical Records. Series 1, Programs and Collection Procedures. The following publications in the series are relevant to the Health Interview Survey or other NCHS household surveys. No. 1 ~1965) Origin, Program, and Operation of the U.S. National Health Survey. Reprint of earlier publication. No. 2 (1964) Health Survey Procedure: Concepts, Questionnaire Development, and Definitions in the Health Interview Survey. No. 11 (1975) Health Interview Survey Procedure: Concepts, Questionnaire Development, and Definitions in the Health Interview Survey. No. 15 (1981) Plan and Operation of the Second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: 1976-80. Other National Health Interview Survey: Report of the National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics (1980~. This report of a Technical Consultant Panel on the Health Interview Survey includes recommendati ons for changes in the content of the HIS questionnaire.

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162 C. Other Pub],1sh.d Reports Loftus, E. (1982) Memory and its distortions. In A.G. Eraut, ea., The G. ~g:~. Washington, D. C.: American Psychological Association. Con~cains some ideas about how to study memory through survey research. Marquis, R. ~ 1976 ) ~ ~ ~ .. R-2319-HE71 . Santa Monica, Calif.: The Rand Corporation. Schuman, H., and Ralton, G. (1985) Survey methods and interviewing. Chapter in G. Lindsey and E. AronsoD, eds., Pi. 3rd edition. New York: Random House. Available in . prepublication form. ~ Schumann, H., Smith, T., and Turner, C. ~1984) Variability in survey mea~urem~ts of subjective phenomena: empirical results. Chapter 5 in I. Report of the Panel on Surrey Meanurem~t of SubJective Phenomena, Committee on National Statistics. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. [Available in prepublication form. ~ Skogan, W. ~1981 ~ And= I, NCJ-74682. Washington. D.C.: Bureau of Justice Statistics. An _ extensive overview of 15 years of methodological development in refining the methods by which criminal Victimization can be measured through survey interviews. D. _ Bower, G., Black, J., and Turner, T. (1979) Scripts in memory for text. ~ 11:177-220. Provides the main empirical support for script theory. Einhorn, H., and Hogarth, R. ~1978) Confidence in Judgment: persistence of the illusion of validity. ~ 85~5~:395-416. Describes the tendency for people to be overconfident in performing a range of Judgment tasks. Erdelyi, M., and RIeinbard, J. (1978) Has Ebbinghaus decayed with time?: the growth of recall (hypermnesia) over days. Cal of ~ 4~4~:275-289. Sometimes memory improves over time, particularly in the face of repeated efforts at recall. Loftus, E., and Beach, L. (1982) Human inference and Judgment: is the glass half empty or half full? starr I t~ ~ ~~w 34:939-956. A review of R. Nisbett and L. Ross (1980) Rb ~ numb bra _ . Englewood Cliffs, I..: Prentice-Hall. Nisbett, R., and Vilson, T. (1977) Telling more than we can know: verbal reports on mental processes. ~~ rb~sc I ~ '~ ~~ 84~3~:231-259. Describes some limits to self-knowledge and claims that self-reports reflect our theories of behavior more than a direct introspective awareness of its causes.

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163 Smith, E., and Rluegel, J. (1982) Cognitive and social bases of. emotional experience: outcome, attribution, and aff~ec~c. Jou~ of _ ~ 43~6~:~129-~141. Reports on a study, based on results from a national survey, of cognition-emotion links, taking into consideration the social context of the individual. E. ~ Givens, J., and Moos, A. ~1 981~ Redesigning the National Health Interview Survey's Data Collection Instrument. Paper presented to the American Public Health Association. Kovar, M., and Wilson, R. (1976) Perceived health -~tatus--how good is proxy reporting? Pp. 495-500 in Section. Washington, D.C.: American Statistical Association. Rovar Me, and Wright, R. (1973) An experiment with alternate respondent rules in the National Health Interview Survey. Pp. 311-316 in proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. Washington, D.C.: American Statistical Association. Massey, J., and Gonzalez, J. (1976) Optimum recall periods for estimating accidental injuries in the National Health Interview Survey. Pp. 584-588 in _ ~ Section. Washington, D.C.: American Statistical Association. Massey, J., Marquis, E., and Tortora, R. ~ 1982) Methodological issues related to telephone surveys by federal agencies. proceedings of the ~ . Washington, D . C .: American Statistical Association . Monsees, M., and Massey, J . ~ ~ 979 ~ Adapting procedures for collecting demographic data in a personal interview to a telephone interview. Proceedings of. the Social Statistics Section . Washington, D. C .: American Statistical Association. Nisselson, H., and Woolsey, T. (1959) Some problems of the household interview design for the National Health Survey. Journal of the ~ 34~285~:69-87. This article, published about two years after the start of the National Health Interview Survey, discusses many of the basic survey design issues that were addressed in subsequent methodological research. White, A., and Massey, J. (1981) Selective reduction of proxy response bias in a household interview survey. Pp. 211-216 in Proceedings of the Koala' st~ti~u~ ~ton. Washington, D.C.: American Statistical Association. F. ~ _ Ralton, G., and Schuman, H. (1982) The effect of the question OF survey responses: a review. ~ , Series A, 145, Part I' 42-73. Includes comments by the discussants.

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164 LofLus, B. and Marburger, V. (1983) Since the eruption of Mt. St. Helens, did anyone beat you up?: improving the accuracy of retrospective reports with landmark events. be g~_~l ; 11:~14-120. Sykes, W. (1982) Investigation of the effect of question form. Survey ~ Lt~: I Mel LLtc. Social and Community Planning Research, London. Includes a classification of question forms used on survey questionnaires.