Click for next page ( 172


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 171
INDEX Affective carryover effects, 36-37 Age frequency judgments, ability to make, 120-21, 123 memory ability relationship, 6-7, 44, 92 perceptions of national history, 38 Aids to memory (cues), 4, 15, 82-83, 104, 105, 111, 114, 1 18 Alternat Ives choosing between, 109 middle alternatives, 116 Alzheimer's Syndrome (disease), 44 American Association for Public Opinion Research, 69, 153 American Stat ist ical Associat ion, 69, 153 Anchoring and adjustment, 10, 12, 85-86 Ancillary information, 16 Antonyms, 109 Attitude questions, 14, 16, 35, 36, 87-89, ~ 12 Attitudes, 4, 91 nonattitudes, 87-~8 symbol ic and instrumental, 37 well-formed, 88-89 Attitude scaling techni ques, 90, ~6 Availability heuristic, 85, 122, ~ 24-25 Bias, ~ 7, 65, 86, 9 ~ See also Record checks. 171 Bottom-up processing, 76-77 Bounded recal l , 32 , 119 Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2 Bureau of Social Science Research, 2, 149 Categorized words task, 50 Census Bureau, 2, 3, 21, 150, 152 Central processor, 103-4 Chicago, University of, 35, 37 Choice models, 89-90 Closed-format questions, 105, 113-15 Cognitive abilities new investigation methods, 9 proposed survey topics, 6-7, 44-60 See also Comprehension, Judgment, Memory. Cognitive aspects of survey methodology ~ CASM) seminar background materials, 7 ~ -72, 150, 157-64 biographical sketcher of. participants, 1 65-70 follow-up activities 69-70, 153-55 organization and structure, 1_3, 149-55 themes and topics, 3-6 Cognitive failures, 7 Cognitive processes, in survey response, 35-37, 71, 73-74 Cognitive sciences improvement of survey methodology, 10-21

OCR for page 171
172 laboratory-based research on survey methods, 26-34 research methods of, as distinguished from survey methodology, 4, 6, 26-27, 3l, 91-92, 106 study area of, ~ survey methodology, collaboration efforts, 1-2, 24, 69-70 surveys as cognitive experiments, 7-8 Committee on National Statistics, 1, 2, 149, 152 Communication errors, ~ 03 Comprehension, 2, ~ 3- ~ 4 , 74-79, 107, 108 Computer-assisted telephone interviewing (CATI), 15, 17, 151 Conditioning, 32-33 Conditions See Health. Confidence measures, 16, 20, 66-68 Conf ident ial ity of responses, 33-34 Consistency, 91 Construct validity, 143 Context comprehension, 77-78 frequency Judgments, 122 memory, 80, 125 question responses, 7B, ~ 16-19 Conversations, and inter~rlews, ~ 1, ~9 Correlations, form-re~istant, ~ 15 Crime victimization, 2, 62-63 Criterion validity, 143 Cued recall tests, 50 Cues (memory aids), 4, 15, 82-83, 104, 105, 111, 114, 118 Cultural and social differences attitudes, 38-39 comprehension, ~ 3 illness concepts, 6, 22 memory, 47 motivation, scripts, ~ 2 Dating events, 35, 37, 105, 123-24 Debriefing, 20 Decision models, 89-90 Deliberate errors, 103 Denial scales, 16 Dichotomous response categories, ~6 Don't known (DK) filters, 115-16 Economic and Social Research Council, 69 Economic beliefs survey, 7 Education levels, and response quality, 115 Elimination-by-aspects model, 90 Emotional experiences survey, 7 Emotions emotional events, memory or, 83 response effects or, 36-37 Encoding specificity, 80, 104, 112 Episodic memory, 45, 49, 79-80, 104, 124 Errors, 4, 1 1 match errors, 134-36 offsetting errors, 143-44 reduction strategies, 13-20 sources of See Response types of., 103 Estimates over- and underestimation, 121-23 past and future behavioral est imates for self and others, 65-68 preliminary estimates (anchors), 10, 12, 85-86 probability estimates, ~ 6 t ime and frequency judgments, 10, 35, 37, ~ 19-25 Estimation strategies, 16 Ethnographic studies, 21 Examples, to clarify questions, ~ 3-14, 15 Factual questions, 86, 87 Fatigue effects, 18 Filters, 1 15-16 Floaters, ~ ~ 5- ~ 6 Forewarning of interview content, 15, 83 Forgetting, 81-82, 92-93, 137, 142-44 Form-resistant correlations, 115

OCR for page 171
173 Fragment completion test, 50 Frames ( schemata, scripts ), 5 , 1 1-12, 14, 36, 65, 75-76, 88, 104, 109 Free recall tests, 50 Frequency judgments, 10, 35, 37, 1 1 9-25 Gallup survey, 108 General Social Survey, 110 , ~1 7, 153 Health identification of health condit ion, 6, 22-23 protocol analysis, 6 1-64 restricted act iffily, 23-24 self-perceptions of, 24 utilization of medical services, 21-22 Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 23 Health surveys, 23 record-check estimates of reporting errors, 137-42 See also National Health Interview Survey. Homonyms, 79 Human information processing, model, 103-5 Hypermne~ia, 12-13 Illness concepts . ~ Health. Information integration theory, 84 Infor mat ion processing, model, 103-5 Institute for Social Research, 150 In~titut fur Demoskopie, 69 Instrumental attitudes, 37 Interfering variables, 9 Interviewers behavior, improvement strategies for, 17 response effects, 101, 102 role of, 5, 9, 65, 102 Int erviews camp u t er- as ~ i ~ t ed t el ephone interviewing (CATT), 15, conceptual model, lO conduct of, 5, ~ 8-20 humanizing, 5, 11, 19 length of ~ respondent burden ? 1e, ~ 18 matching respondent script, ~ 2, ~9 ordinary conversations, comparison, ~ ~ presence of other persons, 9, 19, 20, ~ 18-19 validation interviews, 8, 20 Judgment, 2, 84-89 frequency judgments, 35, 66-68, 85-87, 119-25 improvement strategies, 15-17 proposed research on, 9-10 Judgmental heuristics, 12, 85-86, 124-25 Justice Statistics, Bureau of,, 2 37, Landmark events, 15, 123-24 Lie scales, 16, 20 Lon&;-term memory, 45, 49, 79, 80, 103, 104 Luce choice rule, 89-90 Management and Budget, Of rice of, Match errors, 134-36 Max Planck Society, 69 Medical services reporting biases, 137-42 utilization or, 21-22 Memory aids (cues) 4, 15, 82-83, tO4, 105, 111, 114, 118 as associative network, 80 definitions and types of, 45, 79-80 distribution of memory abilities, 5, 44, 52 episodic memory, 45, 49, 79-80, 104, 124 forgetting, 81-82, 92-93, 137, 142-44 memorable events, 83-84 national and personal history intersection, 7, 25, 38-43, 123-24

OCR for page 171
174 national memory inventory, 6, memory and memory tents, 45-46 25, 44-60 National Opinion Research Center, organization of memory, 5, 9 35, 36, 108, 153 proposed research areas, 8-9 National Science Foundation, 1, proposed survey topics, 6-7 1 52, 153 reconstruction of information, National survey on cognitive 80-81, ~ ~ 3 failures, 7 semantic memory, 45, 49, 79-80, Network, memory as, 80 ~ 04, ~ 24 Network sampl ing, 33 written and spoken language, 79 Nonattitudes, 87-~8 Memory errors, ~ 03 "No opinion" response category, Memory tasks, 46-49 ~1 5- 1 6 Memory tents, 46 national memory inventory, 25, 44-60 Mental health, 23 Metamemory, 7 Michigan, University of Inst itute for Social Research, 150 Surrey Research Center, ~ 54 Middle alternatives, ~1 6 Milbank Memorial Fund, 69-70 Minnesota Multipha~ic Personality Inventory, 16 lIultitrace theory, 124 National and personal history relationship, 7, 25, 38-43, 123-24 National Center for Health Statistics, 3, 25, 26-34, 150, 152 National Crime Survey, 2, 61 National Elections Survey, 150 National Health Interview Surrey (NHIS), 6, lO, 14, 1B, 19, 21-24, 61, 118 as focus of CASM seminar, 3, 149-55 an test Vehicle for laboratory research on survey methods, 26-34 National Medical Care Utilization and Expenditure Survey, 23 National memory inventory, 6, 25, 44-60 battery description, 46-50 data collection and analysis, 50-52 instructions, materials, tests, 52-59 Office of Management and Budget, Offsetting errors, 143-44 Open-ended questions, 89, 105, 113-15 Opinion (attitude) questions, 14, 16, 35, 36, 8?-89, 112 Optimism, 93 Oral presentation, 78-79 Overreporting, 119, 144 Paired-a~sociate tasks, 50 Part-net cuing, 13 Personal history national history relationship, 7, 25, 38-43 survey question order, 14 Practice effects, 121 Presentation mode, 78-79 Primacy effects, 42 Primary memory, 45 Prior knowledge, 77 Proactive inhibition, 14 Probability estimates, 16 Protocol analysis, 12, 20, 61-64 Proper respondents, 33, 66-68 Question order affective carryover effects, 36-37 as interpretive context, ~ 4, 78, 116-~8 interviewer discretion to determine, 17 and organization of memory, 5, 9, 12, 14, 19 and proactive inhibit ion, ~ 4

OCR for page 171
175 Questions additional questions to produce addit tonal information, 62 att itude quest ions, ~ 4, ~ 6, 35, 36, 87-89, ~ ~ 2 closed-format questions, ~ 05, 1 1 3- 1 5 different interpretations by respondents, 6, ~ 3- ~ 4, 77-78, ~ 07-8 different questions on same topic, ~ 08-9 to elicit reasons, 35, 36 filter and floater options, 1 15-16 focus of attention in, ~ ~ 2- ~ 3 generality/specificity dimension, 110-~1 lengthening i ntroduction to, 111, 118 4, 6, 26-27, 31, 91-92, 106 open-ended quest ions, 89- ~ 05, laboratory-based research on survey methods, 26-34 material to be recalled unknown to researcher, 9 tools for methodological Recognition memory, 50, 80 recall distinguished from, 105, ~4 Reconstruction of information, 80-~1, 113 Record checks, 8, 9, 20, 72, 130-47 basic logic of, 130-32 matching errors, 134-36 net survey response bias, 132-37, 142-45 report ing errors in health surveys, 137-42 Reference periods, ~ 5, 22 Reporting biases, 91 Beg also Record checks. Representativeness heuristic, 85 Research methods cognitive ~ciences/survey research methodology compared, 113-15 types of, 35, 86-87 Question wording and context and response effects, 14 , 36 , 102-3, 106-13 Randomized response, 33 Rating scales, 90, 116 Reasons, quest ions to el ~ c ~ t, 35-37, 87 Recall, 2 bounded recall, 32, 119 improvement strategies, ~4-15, 65-66 protocol analysis, 12, 20, 61-64 question order effect on, 5, 9, 12, 14, 19 question wording effect on, 112 recognition distinguished from, 105, 114 as reconstruction, 80-~1, 113 retrieval order, 62, 63 telescoping' 9, 31-32, 111, 119, 143-44 validation procedures, 8, 9, 20-21, 130-147 Recall interval, 143-45 Recall tents, 50 Recency effects, 42 research, 20-21 Respondent burden, 118 Respondents choice of respondents, 19-20 cognitive process involved in survey responding, 35-37, 73-74 debriefing, 20 interactions among household members, 9, 19, 2O, ~18-19 interview behavior, ~ 8-20 interview role of, 101-2 motivation, 18-19 multiple respondents, 19-20 preserving anonymity of, 33-34 proxy respondent, 33, 66-68 response effects, 101, 102 Response categories, l] 3- 1 6 Response effects/errors, 1l, 13-17, 71-72, 101-29 conceptual model, ~ O 1-3 contextual meaning and, ~16-19 of emotions, 36-37 human information processing, model, 1 03-5 perceptions of confidentiality and, 33-34

OCR for page 171
176 question wording and, 36, 102-3, 106-13 response categories, 113-16 survey and cognitive research tradit ions compared, 106 temporal memory and, 119-25 Response select ion, 89-90 Rest periods, 14 Restricted activity See Health. Retrieval f~ Recall. Retrieval cues (memory aids), 4, 82-83, 104, 105, 111, 114, 118 Royal Statistical Society, Salience, 16, ~ 19, 123, 125 Satisficing rules, 90 Schemata, scripts (frames), 5, ~ 1-12, 14, 36, 65, 75-76, 88, 104, 109 Secondary memory, 45 Self-enumeration, 34 Selt-report data, 5 compared with proxy reports, 66-68 Semantic memory, 45, 49, 79-80, 104, 124 Sensitive items, 16, 33-34, 10S, 142 Sensory memory, 79 Short-term memory, 45, 49, 79, 103, 104 Social Science Research, Bureau or, 2, 149 Social Science Research Council (United Kingdom), ~ Social Science Research Council (United States), 70, 153 Spacing effects, 121, 122, 125 Split-ballot studies, 20, 21, 36, 106 Squish effects, 123 Stereotypes, BB Stores, ~ 06 Strength models, 124 Survey bias Gee Record checks. Survey methodology cognitive sciences, collaboration efforts, 1-2, 24, 69-70 improvement strategies, 10-2 laboratory-based research on 26-34 research methods of, as distinguished from cognitive sciences 4, 6, 26-27, 31, 91-92, 106 Survey Research Center, 154 Surveys as cognitive experiments, 7-8 methodological research component, 1 1 proposed research areas, 8-10 proposed surveys on cognitive abilities, 6-7 reliability assessments, 1 1 See al so Interviews. Symbolic attitudes, 37 Synonyms, 109 Telescoping, 9, 3t-32, ~ ~ 1, 119, ~ 43-44 Temporal memory, ~ 0, 35, 37, ~ 05, ~ ~ 9-25 Threshold process models, 116 Time for retrieval, ~ 43-45 Top-down processing, 75-76 Trait models, ~ 1 5-16 Underreporting, 6, 8-9, ~ 2- ~ 3, 15, 21-23, ~ 1B, 144 United Kingdom, Utilization See Health. Validation interviews, 8, 20 Val idity checks, 20-2 ~ . See also Record checks. Verbatim memory, 80-~1 Videotaped inters dews, ~ 7, 20, ~ 53 Visual aide, to clarity questions, ~4 Wechaler Memory Scale, 46 Yale University, 35 Zentrum fur Umtragen und Methodische Analyze, 69