ELECTROMETALLURGICAL TECHNIQUES FOR DOE SPENT FUEL TREATMENT

STATUS REPORT ON ARGONNE NATIONAL LABORATORY'S R&D ACTIVITY THROUGH SPRING 1997

Committee on Electrometallurgical Techniques for DOE Spent Fuel Treatment

Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology

Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications

National Research Council

National Academy Press
Washington, D.C. 1997



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ELECTROMETALLURGICAL TECHNIQUES FOR DOE SPENT FUEL TREATMENT: STATUS REPORT ON ARGONNE NATIONAL LABORATORY'S R&D ACTIVITY THROUGH SPRING 1997 ELECTROMETALLURGICAL TECHNIQUES FOR DOE SPENT FUEL TREATMENT STATUS REPORT ON ARGONNE NATIONAL LABORATORY'S R&D ACTIVITY THROUGH SPRING 1997 Committee on Electrometallurgical Techniques for DOE Spent Fuel Treatment Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications National Research Council National Academy Press Washington, D.C. 1997

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ELECTROMETALLURGICAL TECHNIQUES FOR DOE SPENT FUEL TREATMENT: STATUS REPORT ON ARGONNE NATIONAL LABORATORY'S R&D ACTIVITY THROUGH SPRING 1997 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. Support for this project was provided by the Department of Energy under contract DE-FG02-96NE21233. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsor. Copyright 1997 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Available from: Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20418 Printed in the United States of America

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ELECTROMETALLURGICAL TECHNIQUES FOR DOE SPENT FUEL TREATMENT: STATUS REPORT ON ARGONNE NATIONAL LABORATORY'S R&D ACTIVITY THROUGH SPRING 1997 Committee on Electrometallurgical Techniques for DOE Spent Fuel Treatment GREGORY R. CHOPPIN, Florida State University, Chair JOHN F. AHEARNE, Duke University and Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society MICHAEL J. APTED, QuantiSci, Inc. PATRICIA A. BAISDEN, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory SOL BURSTEIN, Wisconsin Electric Power Co. (retired) EDITH M. FLANIGEN, UOP (retired) L. EUGENE MCNEESE, Oak Ridge National Laboratory ROBERT A. OSTERYOUNG, North Carolina State University JOHN D. SHERMAN, UOP JOEL D. WILLIAMS, Los Alamos National Laboratory RAYMOND G. WYMER, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (retired) Staff TAMAE MAEDA WONG, Study Director MARIA P. JONES, Senior Project Assistant

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ELECTROMETALLURGICAL TECHNIQUES FOR DOE SPENT FUEL TREATMENT: STATUS REPORT ON ARGONNE NATIONAL LABORATORY'S R&D ACTIVITY THROUGH SPRING 1997 Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology LARRY E. OVERMAN, University of California, Irvine, Co-Chair JOHN J. WISE, Mobil Research and Development Corporation, Co-Chair HANS C. ANDERSEN, Stanford University JOHN L. ANDERSON, Carnegie Mellon University DAVID C. BONNER, Westlake Group PHILIP H. BRODSKY, Monsanto Company GREGORY R. CHOPPIN, Florida State University BARBARA GARRISON, Pennsylvania State University LOUIS C. GLASGOW, E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company JOSEPH G. GORDONII, IBM Almaden Research Center ROBERT H. GRUBBS, California Institute of Technology KEITH E. GUBBINS, Cornell University VICTORIA F. HAYNES, B.F. Goodrich Company JIRI JONAS, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign GARY E. MCGRAW, Eastman Chemical Company GREGORY PETSKO, Brandeis University WAYNE H. PITCHER, JR., Genencor Corporation PETER J. STANG, University of Utah JOAN S. VALENTINE, University of California at Los Angeles WILLIAM J. WARD III, General Electric Company JOHN T. YATES, University of Pittsburgh Staff DOUGLAS J. RABER, Director TAMAE MAEDA WONG, Senior Program Officer TRACY D. WILSON, Senior Program Officer MARIA P. JONES, Senior Project Assistant SYBIL A. PAIGE, Administrative Associate

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ELECTROMETALLURGICAL TECHNIQUES FOR DOE SPENT FUEL TREATMENT: STATUS REPORT ON ARGONNE NATIONAL LABORATORY'S R&D ACTIVITY THROUGH SPRING 1997 Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications ROBERT J. HERMANN, United Technologies Corporation, Co-Chair W. CARL LINEBERGER, University of Colorado, Co-Chair PETER M. BANKS, Environmental Research Institute of Michigan LAWRENCE D. BROWN, University of Pennsylvania RONALD G. DOUGLAS, Texas A&M University JOHN E. ESTES, University of California at Santa Barbara L. LOUIS HEGEDUS, Elf Atochem North America, Inc. JOHN E. HOPCROFT, Cornell University RHONDA J. HUGHES, Bryn Mawr College SHIRLEY A. JACKSON, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission KENNETH H. KELLER, University of Minnesota KENNETH I. KELLERMANN, National Radio Astronomy Observatory MARGARET G. KIVELSON, University of California at Los Angeles DANIEL KLEPPNER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology JOHN KREICK, Sanders, a Lockheed Martin Company MARSHA I. LESTER, University of Pennsylvania THOMAS A. PRINCE, California Institute of Technology NICHOLAS P. SAMIOS, Brookhaven National Laboratory L.E. SCRIVEN, University of Minnesota SHMUEL WINOGRAD, IBM T.J. Watson Research Center CHARLES A. ZRAKET, MITRE Corporation (retired) NORMAN METZGER, Executive Director

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ELECTROMETALLURGICAL TECHNIQUES FOR DOE SPENT FUEL TREATMENT: STATUS REPORT ON ARGONNE NATIONAL LABORATORY'S R&D ACTIVITY THROUGH SPRING 1997 This page in the original is blank.

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ELECTROMETALLURGICAL TECHNIQUES FOR DOE SPENT FUEL TREATMENT: STATUS REPORT ON ARGONNE NATIONAL LABORATORY'S R&D ACTIVITY THROUGH SPRING 1997 Preface The National Research Council (NRC) was asked by the Department of Energy (DOE) to provide an ongoing evaluation of Argonne National Laboratory's (ANL's) research and development (R&D) activity on electrometallurgical techniques for treatment of DOE spent fuel, including the specific application of the technology to Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) spent fuel. The committee charged with this task has continued to review the program and has prepared this report based on the progress of the program through spring of 1997. The committee held two meetings in 1997 (the appendix gives the agendas) to review the R&D program at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) and evaluate the progress of the EBR-II demonstration at Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W). The first meeting was held on April 7-8, 1997, at the National Research Council in Washington, D.C. Briefings by ANL, DOE, and other interested groups were presented. Subsequently, the committee formulated technical questions on the program in areas that required further clarification by ANL and DOE. The committee's second meeting, on May 15-16, 1997, was held in Argonne, Illinois, in conjunction with a site visit. The first day consisted of presentations by ANL-E and ANL-W researchers and a laboratory tour to examine the operations. On the second day, the committee discussed the technical details and deliberated the issues that have formed the basis of the recommendations in this report. The committee meetings and site visit to ANL-E were particularly productive. The committee found the level of detailed technical discussions to be very useful and the information provided by ANL researchers to be important for its evaluation of the program.

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ELECTROMETALLURGICAL TECHNIQUES FOR DOE SPENT FUEL TREATMENT: STATUS REPORT ON ARGONNE NATIONAL LABORATORY'S R&D ACTIVITY THROUGH SPRING 1997 This page in the original is blank.