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K Biographical Notes on Committee Members DAVID BALTIMORE is director of the Whitehead Institute for Bio- medical Research and professor of biology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. From 1974 until 1982, when he was named director of the institute, he was with the Center for Cancer Research of the Massachu- setts Institute of Technology. He has taught in the Department of Biology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology since being appointed to the faculty in 1968. In 1975 he received the Nobel Prize, along with Howard Temin and Renato Dulbecco, for the discovery of reverse transcriptase and for related work on retroviruses. That same year he was an organizer of the Asilomar Conference in California, which focused attention on the development of genetic engineering, and he was later a member of the National Institutes of Health Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee. Dr. Baltimore received his B.A. degree in chemistry from Swarthmore College and his Ph.D. in biology from Rockefeller University. JOHN J. BURNS is an adjunct member of the Roche Institute of Molecular Biology and adjunct professor of the Rockefeller University. From 1967 to 1984 he was vice president of research and development at Hoffmann-La Roche, Inc., Nutley, New Jersey. Prior to that time, he was director of research at Wellcome Research Laboratory, Tuckahoe, New York, and deputy chief of the Laboratory of Chemical Pharmacology, National Heart Institute. Dr. Burns is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and of the Institute of Medicine and has served as president of the International Union of Pharmacology, president of the American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, chairman of 343

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344 APPENDIX K the Committee on Problems of Drug Safety of the National Research Council, senior consultant to the Pharmacology-Toxicology Program, National Institute of General Medical Sciences, and member of the National Advisory Food and Drug Committee of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. His research interests have been the metabolic fate of drugs, drug interactions, the metabolism of vitamin C, and the pharmacology of recombinant DNA products. Dr. Burns received a B.S. degree from Queens College and a Ph.D. in chemistry from Columbia University. JAMES CHIN is chief of the Infectious Disease Branch of the California State Department of Health Services and clinical professor of epidemiol- ogy at the School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley. He has served on several national committees related to infectious disease control, including the Committee on Infectious Diseases of the American Public Health Association, the National Advisory Committee on Immu- nization Practices, and the Armed Forces Epidemiology Board. He received a B.S. degree from the University of Michigan, an M.D. from the State University of New York, Downstate, and an M.P.H. from the School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley. WILLIAM I. CURRAN is Frances Glessner Lee Professor of Legal Medicine in the faculties of both medicine and public health at Harvard University. Before that he was a lecturer in legal medicine at Harvard Law School and a professor at Boston University in both the law and medical schools. He is widely known for his regular column, "Law- Medicine Notes," in the New England Journal of Medicine and also practices law in Boston as counsel and specialist in health care and hospital law with the firm of Warner and Stackpole. He is an adviser on health legislation for the World Health Organization and has engaged in research and investigation for the WHO in many countries. In public offices he served as chairman from 1978 to 1982 of the Massachusetts Commission on Medicolegal Investigation and was a member in the 1970s of the Secretary's Commission on Medical Malpractice, U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. He received his undergraduate and J.D. degrees from Boston College, his LL.M. from Harvard Law School, and an S.M. in hygiene from the Harvard School of Public Health. LEON EISENBERG is Maude and Lillian Presley Professor and chair- man of the Department of Social Medicine and Health Policy and professor of psychiatry at the Harvard Medical School in Boston, Massachusetts. Prior to his move to Boston in 1967, he was professor of child psychiatry at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. His

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APPENDIX K 345 research interests center on the role of social factors as determinants of health and illness. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine, has served on the Advisory Committee to the Director of the National Institutes of Health, and is a consultant to the Division of Mental Health of the World Health Organization. He received his A.B. and M.D. degrees from the University of Pennsylvania. BERNARD N. FIELDS is professor and chairman of the Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics at Harvard Medical School, a position he has held since 1982. His research has focused on the molecular basis of viral pathogenesis. He has served on a number of scientific advisory boards, was chairman of the Experimental Virology Study Section of the National Institutes of Health, and is an editor of the Journal of Virology. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences. He received his M.D. degree from New York University Medical School and his B.A. from Brandeis University. HARVEY V. FINEBERG is dean of the Harvard School of Public Health. A graduate of Harvard Medical School and the John F. Kennedy School of Government, he was formerly director of the Graduate Program in Health Policy and Management at the Harvard School of Public Health and professor of health policy and management. On July 1, 1984, he assumed the deanship of the school. As a member of the Public Health Council of Massachusetts from 1976 to 1979, he participated in decision making on matters of hospital investment and health policy. In 1982 he was appointed to a three-year term as chairman of the Health Care Technology Study Section of the National Center for Health Services Research. He has also served as a consultant to the World Health Organization, and recently he chaired the Massachusetts Task Force on Liver Transplantation. Dean Fineberg's research has addressed several areas of health policy, including the processes of policy development and implementation, assessment of medical technology, and dissemination of medical innovations. Some of his research involves the application of decision analysis and cost-effectiveness evaluation to medical practices. Dean Fineberg helped found and has served as president of the Society of Medical Decision Making and is a member of the Institute of Medicine. He is the coauthor of two books, Clinical Decision Analysis and The Epidemic That Never Was, an analysis of the controversial federal immunization program against swine flu in 1976. DAVID W. FRASER is president of Swarthmore College and adjunct professor of medicine at the University of Pennsylvania. For nine years he was an epidemiologist with the Centers for Disease Control, where his

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346 APPENDIX K work focused on emerging diseases, such as Legionnaire's disease, toxic shock syndrome, and Lassa fever. He has also served as a medical epidemiologic consultant to the Once of Management and Budget. He received his M.D. degree from Harvard Medical School and his B.A. degree from Haverford College. J. THOMAS GRAYSTON is professor of epidemiology and pathobiol- ogy in the School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle. His research, which has been on a variety of infectious diseases both in the United States and the Far East, has for many years concentrated on chlamydial infections. From 1971 until 1983 he served as vice president for health sciences at the University of Washington. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine and has served on a number of advisory boards, committees, and consultative groups related to infectious disease research and to health professions education. Dr. Grayston received his M.D. degree and residency and fellowship training at the University of Chicago. JEROME E. GROOPMAN is associate professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School and chief of the Division of Hematology/ Oncology at the New England Deaconess Hospital. He has been an active clinical and laboratory researcher in AIDS since the recognition of the disease in 1980. His major contributions include epidemiologic studies of heterosexual transmission of the virus, transfusion-associated AIDS, and infection of different body fluids. He has developed an assay for neutral- izing antibodies to HIV that may prove useful in formulating a prototype subunit vaccine. He has published extensively on testing of new drugs for AIDS and ARC and has conducted the first randomized prospective study of recombinant alpha-2A interferon in Kaposi's sarcoma and AIDS. He is also on the editorial board of Blood. JEFFREY E. HARRIS is professor in the Department of Economics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and a practicing internist at the Massachusetts General Hospital. He has served on the Diesel Impacts Study Committee of the National Research Council and on the Committee on Strategies to Reduce the Incidence of Low Birthweight of the Institute of Medicine. He has been a contributor, consulting editor, and senior reviewer to several Surgeon General's reports on smoking and health. He has written widely on medical economics and public health, including a monograph issued by the National Research Council on the potential risk of lung cancer from diesel engine emissions. Dr. Harris received his A.B. degree from Harvard University and his Ph.D. and M.D. degrees from the University of Pennsylvania.

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APPENDIX K 347 MAURICE R. HILLEMAN is director of the Merck Institute for Therapeutic Research and adjunct professor of pediatrics at the School of Medicine of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. From 1948 to 1958 he was chief of the Department of Respiratory Diseases, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, D.C. He has published more than 400 original articles in the fields of virology, immunology, epidemiology, and infectious diseases. He has served on numerous advisory boards and committees, academic and governmental, and has been a member of the Expert Advisory Panel of the World Health Organization, Geneva, since 1952. He received the Lasker Medical Research Award in 1983 and is a member of the National Academy of Sciences. Dr. Hilleman received his B.S. degree from Montana State University in 1941 and a Ph.D. from the University of Chicago in 1944. He holds several honorary doctorate degrees. RICHARD T. JOHNSON is Eisenhower Professor of Neurology and professor of microbiology and neuroscience at the Johns Hopkins Uni- versity School of Medicine. He is a neurologist at the Johns Hopkins Hospital and holds a joint appointment in the Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health. His research has been on the pathogenesis of acute and chronic viral infections of the nervous system. He has served on and chaired advisory boards for federal and voluntary agencies and has served on editorial boards of 15 scientific journals. He received his A.B. and M.D. degrees from the University of Colorado. ARTHUR LIFSON is a vice president of the Equitable Life Assurance Society of the United States. He is responsible for government relations for Equitable Group and Health Insurance Company, which is a division of Equitable. Prior to joining Equitable in 1972, he was assistant director of the Northeast Ohio Regional Medical Program. Mr. Lifson is a gubernatorial appointee to the Health Care Financing Council of New York State and a member of the boards of directors of the National Health Council, Elderplan, Grantmakers in Health, and the Metropolitan Jewish Geriatric Center. He chairs and serves on a variety of committees of various health-related organizations and trade groups. He has written in the areas of long-term care, health education, and health economics. He received a B.S. degree from Hunter College and an M.S. from Case Western Reserve University. FRANK LILLY is professor and chairman of the Department of Genetics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, where most of his scien- tific work has been performed. His studies have been mainly in the areas of oncogenetics and immunovirology. He obtained his B.S. degree from

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348 APPENDIX K West Virginia University and, after a period of study at the University of Paris, received his Ph.D. degree from Cornell Medical College. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and of the Board of Directors of the Gay Men's Health Crisis, New York City. ROBERT F. MURRAY, Jr., is professor of pediatrics and medicine, professor of oncology, and professor and chairman of genetics and human genetics at Howard University College of Medicine in Washington, D.C. His professional activities have included many appointments as chair or member of advisory bodies on bioethics, genetics, sickle-cell anemia, and the like for organizations including the National Research Council, the National Foundation-March of Dimes, and the National Institute for General Medical Sciences. A member of the Institute of Medicine, he has served on its governing council, has held a year-long appointment as its senior scholar-in-residence, has served on several of its study commit- tees, and chaired the IOM study on health and performance of airline pilots related to age. He holds a baccalaureate degree from Union College, and an M.D. from the University of Rochester. He also holds a degree in genetics from the University of Washington and occupied a Rotary Foundation Fellowship in biochemistry at the University of Heidelberg. DOROTHY NELKIN is a professor in the Program on Science, Tech- nology, and Society and in the Department of Sociology of Cornell University. Her research focuses on the social and political implications of controversial areas in science, technology, and medicine and on the process of decision making in complex technical areas. She is on the Board of Directors of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), Medicine in the Public Interest, and the Council for the Advancement of Science Writing. She is also a fellow of the Hastings Center and of the AAAS and was a Guggenheim Fellow in 1984. She has served as an adviser and consultant to several organizations, including the National Academy of Sciences, the Office of Technology Assessment, the National Council on Health Technology, and the Milbank Memorial Fund. Her books include Controversy: The Politics of Technical Deci- sions, Science as Intellectual Property, The Creation Controversy, Work- ers at Risk, and Selling Science: How the Press Covers Science and Technology. JUNE E. OSBORN is dean of the University of Michigan School of Public Health and professor of epidemiology, pediatrics, and communi- cable diseases at the University of Michigan Medical School. From 1966

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APPENDIX K 349 to 1984 she was on the faculty of the University of Wisconsin Medical School as professor of medical microbiology and pediatrics, and from 1975 she served as associate dean of the Graduate School for Biological Sciences at the University of Wisconsin, Madison. She has served in a number of advisory capacities to the Food and Drug Administration, the National Institutes of Health, the U.S. Public Health Service, and the World Health Organization and is a member of the Institute of Medicine. She received her M.D. degree from Case Western Reserve Medical School, did pediatric training at the Boston Children's and Massachusetts General hospitals, and trained in virology and infectious diseases at the Johns Hopkins University and the University of Pittsburgh. SAMUEL W. PERRY is associate professor of psychiatry at Cornell University Medical Center and associate director of the consultation- liaison division of the New York Hospital. As a certified psychoanalyst and a federally funded principal investigator, he has been interested over the past 10 years in the interface between mind and body, especially in the areas of narcotic analgesics, psychoimmunology, and most recently HIV-related disorders. He has published more than 150 articles in these areas as well as two recent books on treatment selection in psychiatry. Dr. Perry received his A.B. degree from Princeton University and his M.D. degree and psychoanalytic training at Columbia University, where he continues to teach. ROLAND K. ROBINS is a vice president of ION Pharmaceuticals, Inc., and vice president and director of Molecular Research Institute, Costa Mesa, California. He is also an adjunct professor of microbiology and molecular genetics at the University of California, Irvine, an adjunct professor of chemistry at Brigham Young University, and a former director of the Cancer Research Center of Brigham Young University. Dr. Robins has published extensively in the field of heterocyclic com- pounds, nucleosides, and nucleotides as medicinal agents that selectively inhibit specific aspects of nucleic acid metabolism. His research has resulted in the synthesis of a number of drugs that are being used clinically or are under clinical evaluation in the United States or abroad. He received his Ph.D. from Oregon State University and is especially well known for his work in the fields of cancer chemotherapy and antiviral agents. From 1964 to 1969 he was a professor of chemistry and medicinal chemistry at the University of Utah, and from 1976 to 1985 he was professor of chemistry and biochemistry at Brigham Young University. He is an assistant editor of the Journal of Heterocyclic Chemistry and serves on the editorial board of the Journal of Nucleosides and Nucleo

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350 APPENDIX K tides, the Journal of Cyclic Nucleotide and Protein Phosphorylation, and Current Abstracts of Chemistry and Index Chemicus. He is a member of the Board of Directors of Viratek, Inc. MARGERY W. SHAW is professor and senior scholar in the Health Law Program at the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, and adjunct professor of health law at the University of Houston Law Center. She has served visiting professorships at Yale University, the University of North Carolina, and the University of Utah and is Andrew D. White Professor-at-Large at Cornell University. She is past president of the American Society of Human Genetics and the Genetics Society of America, is a fellow of the American College of Legal Medicine, and is on the American Board of Medical Genetics and the board of the American Society of Law and Medicine. She has served on the Director's Advisory Committee of the National Institutes of Health and on several National Research Council committees. She is on the editorial board of the American Journal of Medical Genetics and the American Journal of Law and Medicine and has edited three books. She has written more than 200 publications on chromosomal research and disorders and on health law issues concerning reproductive alternatives, privacy and confidentiality, wrongful life, and fetal abuse. She received an A.B. degree from the University of Alabama, an M.A. from Columbia University, an M.D. from the University of Michigan, and a J.D. from the University of Houston, and she has honorary D.Sc. degrees from the University of Evansville and the University of Southern Indiana. P. FREDERICK SPARLING is J. Herbert Bate Professor and chairman of the Department of Microbiology and Immunology at the University of North Carolina School of Medicine, a position he has held since 1981. He is also professor of medicine and former chief of the Division of Infectious Disease in the Department of Medicine at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. His research has focused on the molecular basis of antibiotic resistance and bacterial pathogenesis. He has had a long- standing interest in sexually transmitted diseases and is coeditor of a recent major textbook on this subject. He has served on a number of scientific advisory boards, was chairman of the Bacteriology and Mycol- ogy Study Section, and is a councillor of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. He received his M.D. degree from Harvard University and his B.A. from Princeton University. CLADD E. STEVENS is a senior investigator and head of the Labora- tory of Epidemiology at the New York Blood Center. She trained in pediatrics and in public health at the University of Washington, Seattle.

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APPENDIX K 351 She began research in viral hepatitis as a consultant to the U.S. Navy Medical Research Unit No. 2 in Taiwan while a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Washington. In 1975 she joined the late Wolf Szmuness at the New York Blood Center, where she helped to run efficacy trials of hepatitis B vaccine. In addition to continued research on viral hepatitis and immunoprophylaxis, her recent research has focused on the epidemi- ology of AIDS. Dr. Stevens received a B.A. degree from Pomona College, an M.D. from Baylor College of Medicine, and an M.P.H. from the University of Washington. HOWARD M. TEMIN is American Cancer Society Professor of Viral Oncology, Harold P. Rusch Professor of Cancer Research, and Steenbock Professor of Biological Sciences at the University of Wiscon- sin School of Medicine, Madison, where he has been since 1960. He has worked on retroviruses continuously since 1956, when he was a graduate student at the California Institute of Technology. In 1975 he received the Nobel Prize, along with David Baltimore and Renato Dulbecco, for some of this work. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and has served on the National Institutes of Health Virology Study Section and on the editorial boards of several virology journals. PAUL VOLBERDING is associate professor of medicine at the Univer- sity of California, San Francisco, and chief of the Medical Oncology Division and AIDS Activities Division at San Francisco General Hospital. During the past several years he has served on a variety of committees on AIDS for the city of San Francisco and the state of California, and he is a member of the National Institutes of Health Executive Committee. Dr. Volberding is actively involved in the provision of care to ARC and AIDS patients and undertakes clinical research in the treatment of HIV infec- tion and Kaposi's sarcoma. He received an A.B. from the University of Chicago and an M.D. from the University of Minnesota. LeROY WALTERS is director of the Center for Bioethics at the Kennedy Institute of Ethics and associate professor of philosophy at Georgetown University in Washington, D.C. He is coeditor of two books, the annual Bibliography of Bioethics and an anthology entitled Contem- porary Issues in Bioethics. He is a member of the National Institutes of Health Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee and chairs the com- mittee's Subcommittee on Human Gene Therapy. In 1976 and 1977 Dr. Walters chaired the Work Group on Informed Consent for the national immunization policy studies conducted by the Assistant Secretary for Health. From 1979 to 1981 he was a member of the National Council for Health Care Technology. He has served as a consultant to the National

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352 APPENDIX K Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects, the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare Ethics Advisory Board, and the President's Commission on Bioethics. Dr. Walters is an ethicist who received his Ph.D. degree from Yale University. IRVING WEISSMAN is professor of pathology and biology at Stanford University. His research concerns the normal, pathologic, and neoplastic development and function of the central cells of the immune system the T and B lymphocytes. He also studies the retroviruses that cause T- and B-cell malignancies. A member of the faculty at Stanford since 1968, Dr. Weissman is coauthor of two textbooks on immunology. He has served on several review committees and study sections for the National Institutes of Health, the American Cancer Society, and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. He is on the editorial board of several journals in the fields of immunology, developmental biology, and cellular biology and is currently a member of the directorate of the Stanford Center for Molecular and Genetic Medicine. He received a B.S. from Montana State University and an M.D. from Stanford University. SHELDON M. WOLFF is Endicott Professor and chairman of the Department of Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine, and physician-in-chief at the New England Medical Center Hospital. Dr. Wolff received his B.S. degree from the University of Georgia, his M.D. degree from Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, and an honorary doctorate from the Federal University, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. From 1960 through 1977 Dr. Wolff worked at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), and for the last 10 years of his stay there he was clinical director of NIAID and chief of the Laboratory of Clinical Investigation. Dr. Wolff s research has dealt with the biological properties of bacterial endotoxins and, in particular, with the pathogenesis of fever. In addition, he has published widely on host defenses and responses to infectious diseases. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine, past president of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, past chairman of the Subspecialty Board of Infectious Diseases, and a member of the Board of Governors of the American Board of Internal Medicine. Dr. Wolff is a member of the advisory council of NIAID and was chairman of the Institute of Medicine-National Academy of Sciences Committee on the Toxic Shock Syndrome.