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Biographies of Contributors HERBERT L. ABRAMS, M.D., is Professor of Radiology at Stanford Uni- versity School of Medicine and a Member-in-Residence of the Stanford Center for International Security and Arms Control (Stanford, CA 943051. From 1967 to 1985 he was the Philip H. Cook Professor of Radiology at Harvard Medical School and Chairman of Radiology at Brigham and Women's Hos- pital in Boston. Dr. Abrams was founding Vice-President of International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War and has served as National Co- chairman of Physicians for Social Responsibility. LYNN ANSPAUGH, Ph.D., is the Division Leader for Environmental Sci- ences at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (Livermore, CA 944501. Since 1963, he has been with the Biomedical and Environmental Research Program at LLNL and has performed research in the areas of aeolian resus- pension of toxic materials, radiation-dose-model development, and risk as- sessment. Dr. Anspaugh is also Project Leader for LLNL's studies on the biological and ecological effects of global nuclear war. WILLIAM R. BEARDSLEE, M.D., is Clinical Director of the Department of Psychiatry of Children's Hospital Medical Center and Assistant Professor at Harvard Medical School (Boston, MA 021151. He was a member of the 1982 American Psychiatric Association task force on nuclear issues and co- author of its report Psychosocial Aspects of Nuclear Developments. 599

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600 sloGRApHIEs OF CONTRIBUTORS JOHN W. BIRKS, Ph.D., is Professor of Chemistry and Acting Director of the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder (803091. With Paul J. Crutzen, he co-authored the first paper on nuclear winter, which appeared in 1982 in a special issue of the Swedish international journal Ambio. NIKOLAI P. BOCHKOV, M.D., is Director of the Institute of Medical Genetics of the Soviet Academy of Medical Sciences (UL. Solyanka 14, Moscow 109801, USSR). Academician Bochkov was a member of the steering committee for the World Health Organization's study of the effects of nuclear war and co-author of the 1984 WHO report Effects of Nuclear War on Health and Health Services. SHLOMO BREZNITZ, Ph.D., is Director of the Jaffe Centre for the Study of Psychological Stress at Haifa University, Haifa, Israel. He has served as Provost of Haifa University and as Chairman of its Department of Psychology. From 1983 to 1985, he was Visiting Scientist at the National Institute of Mental Health, Rockville, Maryland. He edited the volume The Denial of Stress. HAROLD L. BRODE, Ph.D., is Vice-President of Strategic Systems at Pacific-Sierra Research Corporation (Los Angeles, CA 90025~. He is also Chairman of the Scientific Advisory Group for Effects (SAGE) for the Defense Nuclear Agency and co-founder of R&D Associates. GEORGE F. CARRIER, Ph.D., is T. Jefferson Coolidge Professor of Ap- plied Mathematics at Harvard University (Cambridge, MA 021381. He has received the Von Karman Medal of the American Society of Civil Engineers, the Timoshenko Medal of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, and the Von Karman Prize of the Society of Industrial and Applied Mathe- matics. In 1983-1984, he chaired the National Research Council's Committee on the Atmospheric Effects of Nuclear Explosions. HAROLD C. COCHRANE, Ph.D., is an Associate Professor of Economics and Co-Director of the Hazards Assessments Laboratory at Colorado State University (Fort Collins, CO 805231. He has written on the subjects of the economics of natural disasters and the economics of weather warnings. WILLIAM DAUGHERTY earned a B.A. in politics from Princeton Uni- versity in 1986 and is currently a graduate student in politics at Columbia University (New York, NY 100271.

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BIOGRAPHIES OF CONTRIBUTORS 601 OLE JOHAN FINNOY is a school psychologist in Trondheim, Norway. He is a research assistant on the project "Children and the Future" at the Uni- versity of Bergen. SUSAN T. FISKE, Ph.D., is Associate Professor of Social Psychology in the Department of Psychology, University of Massachusetts at Amherst (010031. She is co-author of Social Cognition and was co-editor of the 1983 Journal of Social Issues entitled "Images of Nuclear War." JEROME D. FRANK, Ph.D., M.D., is Professor Emeritus of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (Baltimore, MD 212051. He is the author of Sanity and Survival in the Nuclear Age and numerous publications on intergroup relations and the psychology of the nuclear arms race. ALEXANDER L. GEORGE, Ph.D., is the Graham H. Stewart Professor of International Relations at Stanford University and the Stanford Center for International Security and Arms Control (Stanford, CA 943051. He is a former research analyst with the Rand Corporation. Among his publications is Pres- idential Decisionmaking in Foreign Policy: The Effective Use of information and Advice. DAVID S. GREER, M.D., is Dean of Medicine and Professor of Community Health at Brown University (Providence, RI 029121. He was a member of the Institute of Medicine committee that produced the 1984 report, Bereave- ment: Reactions, Consequences, and Care. Dr. Greer has served on the Board of Directors of International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War. DAVID A. HAMBURG, M.D., is President of The Carnegie Corporation of New York. From 1975 to 1980, he was President of the Institute of Medicine. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences Committee on Inter- national Security and Arms Control. Dr. Hamburg is a psychiatrist who has written extensively on aggression, stress, and coping in the context of ethology and human evolution. TED F. HARVEY, Ph.D., is currently a member of the Atmospheric and Geophysical Sciences Division of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (Livermore, CA 945551. His current technical interests include numerical modeling of global and local fallout effects.

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602 BIOGRAPHIES OF CONTRIBUTORS CHRISTINE C. HARWELL, J.D., is a consultant and lawyer specializing in environmental issues. She was technical editor and contributing author to the SCOPE 28 report, The Environmental Consequences of Nucelar War. Volume lI: Ecological and Agricultural Effects. MARK A. HARWELL, Ph.D., is Associate Director of the Ecosystems Research Center at Cornell University (Ithaca, NY 148531. He is senior author of the recently published SCOPE 28 report, The Environmental Consequences of Nuclear War. Volume 11: Ecological and Agricultural Effects. ALEXANDER LEAF, M.D., is Ridley Watts Professor of Preventive Med- icine at Harvard Medical School and Chairman of Preventive Medicine and Epidemiology at Massachusetts General Hospital (Boston, MA 021141. He was a member of the steering committee for the World Health Organization's study of the effects of nuclear war and co-author of the 1984 WHO report Elects of Nuclear War on Health and Health Services. JENNIFER LEANING, M.D., is Chief of Emergency Services for the Har- vard Community Health Plan (Boston, MA 022151. She is a member of the Executive Committee and Board of Directors of Physicians for Social Re- sponsibility and co-chair of the Governor's Advisory Commission on the Impact of the Nuclear Arms Race on Massachusetts. Dr. Leaning co-edited The Counterfeit Ark: Crisis Relocation for Nuclear War. BARBARA G. LEVI, Ph.D., is a member of the research staff at Princeton University's Center for Energy and Environmental Studies (Princeton, NJ 08540) and a contributing editor to Physics Today. Before joining the Prince- ton staff, Dr. Levi taught at the Georgia Institute of Technology. ROBERT C. MALONE, Ph.D., pursues an interest in computer modeling of the earth's atmosphere and climate system at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos, NM 875451. Previously he conducted research on inertial confinement fusion, magnetic confinement fusion, and high-density plasma physics, also at Los Alamos. ROBERT Q. MARSTON, M.D., is President Emeritus of the University of Florida and Professor of Medicine at the J. Hillis Miller Health Center, University of Florida (Gainesville 326101. He is a former director of the National Institutes of Health. He currently serves as Chairman of the Safety Advisory Committee of the General Public Utilities Nuclear Corporation. Dr. Marston chaired the steering committee for the 1985 Institute of Medicine Symposium, "Medical Implications of Nuclear War."

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BIOGRAPHIES OF CONTRIBUTORS 603 DENNIS MILETI, Ph.D., is Professor of Sociology and Co-Director of the Hazard Assessments Laboratory at Colorado State University (Fort Collins, CO 805231. He has published in the fields of human response to warnings and the organizational response to the threat of disaster. PER OFTEDAL, Ph.D., holds a chair in General Genetics at the University of Oslo. He has worked and published extensively in the field of radiation genetics and contributed background papers on cancer and genetic aspects to the 1984 World Health Organization report Effects of Nuclear War on Health and Health Services. KENDALL R. PETERSON, M.S., is an atmospheric physicist with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (Livermore, CA 945551. His research focuses on the transport and diffusion of radioactive pollutants over intermediate and global distances. THEODORE A. POSTOL, Ph.D., is a physicist who has conducted research at Argonne National Laboratory, analyzed MX missile issues for the Congres- sional Office of Technology Assessment, and served in the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations. He is now at the Center for International Security and Arms Control at Stanford University (Stanford, CA 943051. MAGNE RAUNDALEN, Ph.D., is Associate Professor of Clinical Child Psychology at the University of Bergen, Norway, where he directs the project "Children and the Future." He is co-editor of War, Violence and Children in Uganda. LAWRENCE S. RIFKIN is a medical student in Brown University's Pro- gram in Medicine (Providence, RI 029121. JOSEPH ROTBLAT, Ph.D., is Emeritus Professor of Physics at the Uni- versity of London. An original signer of the Einstein-Russel Manifesto, Pro- fessor Rotblat was Secretary General of the Pugwash Conference on Science and World Affairs from 1957 to 1973. He is Past President of the British Institute of Radiology and was Editor-in-Chief of Physics in Medicine and Biology. His address is 8 Asmara Road, London NW2 3ST, England. CARL SAGAN, Ph.D., is the David Duncan Professor of Astronomy and Space Sciences and Director of the Laboratory for Planetary Studies at Cornell University (Ithaca, NY 148531. He is a recent recipient of the Honda Prize in Ecotechnology, the Annual Award for Public Service of the Federation of American Scientists, and the Leo Szilard Award for Physics in the Public

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604 BIOGRAPHIES OF CONTRIBUTORS Interest of the American Physical Society. He was co-editor of The Cold and the Dark: The World After Nuclear War. CHARLES S. SHAPIRO, Ph.D., is Professor of Physics at San Francisco State University (San Francisco, CA 94132~. Formerly, he studied radiation effects for 10 years at IBM. He currently is a consultant on fallout to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Professor Shapiro was co-editor and contributing author to the SCOPE 28 report, Environmental Consequences of Nuclear War. Volume 1: Physical and Atmospheric Effects. RICHARD D. SMALL, Ph.D., is a Senior Scientist at Pacific-Sierra Research Corporation (Los Angeles, CA 90025), where he is responsible for fire re- search. Previously he was Visiting Assistant Professor at the University of California, Los Angeles, and Senior Lecturer at Tel Aviv University. FREDRIC SOLOMON, M.D., is Director of the Division of Mental Health and Behavioral Medicine of the Institute of Medicine (Washington, DC 20418) where he co-edited the 1984 Institute of Medicine report, Bereavement: Re- actions, Consequences, and Care. Since 1981, he also has served as staff officer to advisory committees to the Institute of Medicine's Council and President on medical consequences of nuclear war; he was Project Director for the 1985 symposium, "Medical Implications of Nuclear War." JOHN D. STEINBRUNER, Ph.D., is Director of the Foreign Policy Studies Program at The Brookings Institution (Washington, DC 20036~. He co-edited the 1983 Brookings publication Alliance Security: NATO and the No-First- Use Question and is co-editor of the forthcoming volume Managing Nuclear Operations. . SHERRY L. STEPHENS is a graduate student in the Department of Chem- istry at the University of Colorado, Boulder (80309~. JAMES THOMPSON, Ph.D., is a Senior Lecturer in Psychology at Uni- versity College London. He is a Fellow of the British Psychological Society and author of its official statement Psychological Aspects of Nuclear War. Dr. Thompson also serves as an adviser to the World Health Organization on the psychological aspects of nuclear issues and teaches in the psychiatry department of Middlesex Hospital (London, WIN BAA). RICHARD P. TURCO, Ph.D., is a Research Scientist and Program Manager at R&D Associates (Marina del Rey, CA 902951. He was co-editor and contributing author to the SCOPE 28 report, The Environmental Consequences

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BlOGRAPHlES OF CONTRIBUTORS 605 of Nuclear War. Volume l: Physical and Atmospheric Elects. He is the recipient of the American Geophysical Union Editor's Citation, the H. Julian Allen Award, the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Service Award, and the Leo Szilard Award. FRANK VON HIPPEL, Ph.D., is a Professor at Princeton's Woodrow Wil- son School of Public and International Affairs and a senior research scientist at the University's Center for Energy and Environmental Studies (Princeton, NJ 085401. He earned a D.Phil. in theoretical physics as a Rhodes Scholar at the University of Oxford. Dr. von Hippel is a Past Chairman of the Fed- eration of American Scientists (FAS) and is currently on the Board of Directors of Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists.

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