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Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Measuring Exposures and Assessing Health Effects
TABLE 1–3 Number of Cigarettes Smoked per Day, as a Percentage of Current Smokers, by Sex
Less Than 15
25 or More
SOURCE: Shopland and Brown, 1985.
in the case of cigarettes designed for ultralow yields of tar and nicotine. Certain other components, in particular volatile, toxic components, are released into SS in significantly greater amounts than into MS. Furthermore, ETS contains significantly smaller particles than MS, and nicotine, and perhaps other smoke constituents, is volatilized to a greater extent in SS than in MS. This means that the gas-phase composition of SS differs substantially from that of MS.
The health implications to nonsmokers of exposure to ETS may not be a simple extrapolation from the studies of active smokers. The complexities of such extrapolations will be discussed.
Children represent a large population of nonsmokers who may be exposed to environmental smoke. Several cohort studies of children are reviewed in Chapter 11. Although there is some variation among these studies, they indicate, mainly through questionnaires, that between 50 and 65 percent of the children have been exposed to tobacco smoke in the home during the past 20 years. Health implications of this exposure for the developing child will be discussed.
This report begins with a discussion of the components of ETS (Chapter 2) and what in vivo and in vitro studies have determined about ETS (Chapter 3). Various methods of exposure assessment