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TABLE 13–1 Studies of Passive Smoking and Cancers Other Than Lung Cancer with Significantly Increased Risks

Author

Study Design

Size (Cases and Population or Controls)

Tumor Outcome Studied

Odds Ratiosa

Hirayama, 1984

Cohort

34/91,540

28/91,540

Brain

Nasal sinus

3.0;6.3;4.3

1.7;2.0;2.6

Miller, 1984

Case-Control

123/537

All sites

1.40

Gillis, 1984

Cohort

Male: 8/827

Female: 43/1917

Sites other than lung

0.5 (M)

1.26 (F)

Sandler et al., 1985a (adulthood exposure)

Case-Control (total) includes smokers

518/518

All sites

Breast

Cervix

Endocrine glands

1.6

1.8

1.8

3.2

Sandler et al., 1985b (lifetime exposure)

Case-control (subset) includes smokers

869/409

All sites

Breast

Cervix

Leukemia and lymphoma

1.4;2.3;2.6

2.0;2.4;3.3

1.6;3.6;3.4

2.5;5.1;6.8

Sandler et al., 1985c (early life exposure)

Case-control (subset) includes smokers

438/470

All sites

Cervix

Hematopoetic tissue

1.5

1.7

2.4

aGiven with increasing dose, if available.

the causal relationship is unclear (International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1986). The risk for these cancers to nonsmokers exposed to ETS has been the subject of a few studies.

Hirayama (1984; see Chapter 12 and Table 13–1) examined cancers of the mouth, pharynx, oesophagus, bladder, pancreas, and cervix. The relative risks were not given, but they were reported to be insignificant. However, a relationship between ETS exposure in nonsmokers and nasal sinus cancer was noted, with rate ratios for the aforementioned exposure categories of 1.7, 2.0, and 2.6, respectively (see Table 13–1).

Sandler et al. (1985a; described in more detail below and in Table 13–1) also did not find a significant odds ratio for any of the smoking-related cancers (including lung cancer), except for cervical cancer (p<0.05). The odds ratios given for these cancers included smokers as well as nonsmokers. Therefore, since the odds ratios were not significant for the combined group, they would



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