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TABLE 14–1 Carbon Monoxide and Carboxyhemoglobin Levels in Nonsmoking Individuals

Experimental Studies (Controlled Chambers)

Study

No. of Cigarettes/h/10m3

No. of Subjects

CO, ppma

Carboxyhemoglobin

Control

Change

Anderson and Dalhamm, 1973

3.1

4.5

0.3

0

Dahms et al., 1981

10

15–20

0.6

+0.4

Harke, 1970

3.9

7

30

0.9

+1.2

Huch et al., 1980

2.3

12

1.3

+0.5

Hugod et al., 1978

2.5

10

20

0.7

+0.9

Pimm et al., 1978

2.4

10

24

0.5

+0.3

 

2.4

10

24

0.7

+0.2

Polak, 1977

6.7

15

23

2.0

+0.3

Russell et al., 1973

15.1

12

38

1.6

+1.0

Seppänen and Uusitalo, 1977

3.8

28

16

1.6

+0.4

Srch, 1967

50

90

2

+3

Observational Studies

Study

Subjects/Exposure

No. of Subjects

Nonexposed: Exposed

Carboxyhemoglobin, %

CO Expired, ppm

Foliart et al., 1982

Flight attendants/8 h

6

1.0:0.7

 

Jarvis et al., 1983

Normal/public house for 2 h

7

 

4.7:10.6

Lightfoot, 1972

Normal/submarine

 

—:1.0

 

Wald et al., 1981

Participants in health screening program

6,641

 

 

Jarvis et al., 1984

Normal/self report

10

0.9:0.8

5.7:5.5

Seppänen and Uusitalo, 1977

Restaurant for 5 h (CO:2.5–15 ppm)

47

2.1:2.1

 

 

Office for 8 h (CO:2.5 ppm)

15

2.3:2.3

 

aCarbon monoxide (CO) measured as a proxy to indicate the concentration of ETS in the chamber.

COHb commonly observed in active smokers are higher, ranging between 4 to 6 percent, rarely greater than 12 percent (Schievelbein and Richter, 1984). Because exposure of the nonsmoker is qualitatively different than exposure to smokers, a simple scaling down of effects observed in active smokers does not appear to be fully appropriate. Therefore, the effects of exposure to nicotine,



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