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OCR for page 279
Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Measuring Exposures and Assessing Health Effects Appendix A: Guidelines for Public and Occupational Chemical Exposures to Materials That Are Also Found in Environmental Tobacco Smoke Table A-1 gives a series of guidelines for public and industrial populations regarding exposure to chemicals that are also constituents in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Not all of the constituents of ETS thought to be toxic or carcinogenic have had guideline levels established. The values in the table are taken from the fourth edition of the Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values, published by the American Conference of Governmental and Industrial Hygienists (1986). The NIOSH recommendations and OSHA standards can be found in the NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, published by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 1981). Each of these guidelines and standards has been established with different considerations in mind. The EPA standards, which apply to outdoor environments, have been established by law to protect the most susceptible individuals. The OSHA standards and ACGIH, NIOSH, and European guidelines have been established for the normal, healthy adult working populations. These guidelines accept some level of risk to some people. They do not consider children, the elderly, or populations with preexisting health conditions who may be at greater risk for health effects of exposure. The appropriate guidelines for susceptible populations probably would be lower. These industrial guidelines also differ from the environmental standards in that they assume that the exposure is limited to a workday period or a time-limited emergency.
OCR for page 280
Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Measuring Exposures and Assessing Health Effects TABLE A-1 Some Occupational and Public Standards for Materials That Are Also in Environmental Tobacco Smoke Public Industrial EPA ACGIHa NIOSHb OSHAc European Standardsd Vapor Phase Carbon monoxide 1 mg/m3—max. 8-h 40 mg/m3—max. 1-h Neither to be exceeded more than once per year TLVe—50 ppm STELf—400 ppm 35 ppm—8 h TWAg 200 ppm ceilh (no min time) 50 ppm West Germany—50 ppm Sweden—35 ppm Carbon dioxide None TLV—5,000 ppm STEL—30,000 ppm 10,000 ppm—10-h TWA 30,000 ppm—10-min ceil. 5,000 ppm — Benzene None TLV—10 ppm A2 1 ppm—60-min ceil. 10 ppm 50 ppm—10-min ceil. Sweden—10 ppm West Germany—0 ppm Toluene None TLV—100 ppm STEL—150 ppm 100 ppm—10-h TWA 200 ppm—10-min ceil. 200 ppm 300 ppm ceil. 500 ppm—10-min peak West Germany—200 ppm Sweden—100 ppm Formaldehyde None TLV—1 ppm A2 Lowest feasible limit 3 ppm 5 ppm ceil. 10 ppm—30-min ceil. Sweden—2 ppm West Germany—1 ppm Acrolein None TLV—0.1 ppm STEL—0.3 ppm None 0.1 ppm — Acetone None TLV—750 ppm STEL—1,000 ppm 250 ppm—10-h TWA 1,000 ppm Sweden—500 ppm Germany—1,000 ppm Pyridine None TLV—5 ppm STEL—10 ppm None 5 ppm West Germany, Sweden—5 ppm Hydrogen cyanide None Ceiling limiti—10 ppm 4.7 ppm—10-min ceil. 4.7 ppm West Germany, Great Britain—10 ppm
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Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Measuring Exposures and Assessing Health Effects Hydrazine None TLV—0.1 ppm A2 0.04 mg/m3—120-min ceil. 1 ppm — Ammonia None TLV—25 ppm STEL—35 ppm 50 ppm—5-min ceil. 50 ppm West Germany—50 ppm Sweden—25 ppm Methylamine None TLV—10 ppm None 10 ppm — Dimethylamine None TLV—10 ppm None 10 ppm — Nitrogen oxide None TLV—25 ppm 25 ppm 25 ppm—10-h TWA — Nitrogen dioxide 0.053 ppm—annual arithmetic mean TLV—3 ppm STEL—5 ppm 1 ppm—15 min ceil. 5 ppm ceil. West Germany—5 ppm Sweden—2 ppm N-Nitrosodimethylamine None A2 None Listed as a cancer-suspect agent — Formic acid None TLV—5 ppm None 5 ppm — Acetic acid None TLV—10 ppm STEL—15 ppm None 10 ppm — Participate phase Participate matter 75 µg/m3—annual geometric mean 260 µg/m3/24-h max Not to be exceeded more than once per year TLV—10 mg/m3 None 15 mg/m3 — Nicotine None TLV—0.5 mg/m3 None 0.5 mg/m3 — Phenol None TLV—19 mg/m3 20 mg/m3—10-h TWA 60 mg/m3—15-min ceil. 19 mg/m3 West Germany—19 mg/m3 Catechol None TLV—5 ppm None None — Hydroquinone None TLV—2 mg/m3 2 mg/m3—15-min ceil. 2 mg/m3 — Aniline None TLV—2 ppm None 5 ppm — 2-Toluidine None TLV—2 ppm A2 None 5 ppm West Germany—5 ppm
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Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Measuring Exposures and Assessing Health Effects Public Industrial EPA ACGIHa NIOSHb OSHAc European Standardsd 2-Naphthylamine None A1b None Listed as a cancer-suspect agent — 4-Aminobiphenyl None A1b None Listed as a cancer-suspect agent — aAmerican Conference of Governmental and Industrial Hygienists. bNational Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. cOccupational Safety and Health Administration. dIncludes standards set in Sweden, Great Britain, and West Germany as examples. eTLV=threshold limit value—time-weighted average concentration for a normal 8-hour workday, 40-hour week. fSTEL=short-term exposure limit—15-minute time-weighted average exposure that should not be exceeded. gTWA=time-weighted average. hCeil.=ceiling. iCeiling Limit—concentration that should not be exceeded during any part of the working exposure. A2—Industrial substance suspect of carcinogenic potential for man; exposure should be avoided. A1b—Human carcinogen. Substance associated with industrial processes, recognized to have carcinogenic potential without an assigned TLV. For substances of this designation, no exposure or contact by any route—respiratory, skin, or oral, as detected by the most sensitive methods—should be permitted. NOTE: Materials in ETS for which there are no standards: carbonyl sulfide, 3-methylpyridine, 3-vinylpyridine, anatabine, benz(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, cholesterol, y-butyrolactone, quinoline, harman, N-nitrosonornicotine, NNK, N-nitrosodiethanolamine, zinc, polonium-210.
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Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Measuring Exposures and Assessing Health Effects The guidelines are given in terms of cumulative exposure over a period of time or in terms of maximal concentrations. The Threshold Limit Value (TLV) is the time-weighted average concentration of a normal 8-hour workday or 40-hour work week. The Short-Term Exposure Limit (STEL) is defined as a 15-minute time-weighted average exposure that should not be exceeded at any time during a workday, even if the 8-hour time-weighted average is within the TLV. Exposures at the STEL should not be repeated more than four times per day, with at least 60 minutes between successive exposures at the STEL. The ceiling limit is the concentration that should never be exceeded. Finally, it should be noted that the guidelines are established for individual chemicals, without consideration of complex mixtures that may contain these chemicals. The behavior of the chemicals in a complex mixture over time is likely to be complicated. In summary, the direct comparisons of these guidelines with ambient levels measured in natural or experimental conditions should be made with caution. In some cases, the comparison may be inappropriate. REFERENCES American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices, fifth ed. Cincinnati, Ohio: ACGIH, 1986. 743 pp. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). NIOSH/OSHA Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHEW Publ. No. 85–14. Cincinnati, Ohio: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 1985. 241 pp. Swedish Board of Occupational Safety and Health (Arbetarksyddsstyrelsens). Hygieniska Gransvarden. Stockholm, Sweden: Liber Distribution, 1984. 60 pp.
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