Similar work with skin painting has not been done with ETS and would be of value for assessing the differential toxicity of ETS and MS.

  1. In vitro assays are needed for estimation of the tumor promotion and cocarcinogenic effect of ETS. In vitro tests are quicker than in vivo tests, and enough material can not be collected to do in vivo tests.


Alarie, Y. Sensory irritation by airborne chemicals. CRC Crit. Rev. Toxicol. 2:299–363, 1973.

Basrur, P.K., S.McClure, and B.Zilkey. A comparison of short term bioassay results with carcinogenicity of experimental cigarettes, pp. 2041–2048. In H.E.Nieburgs, Ed. Prevention and Detection of Cancer, Vol. 1. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1977.

Bos, R.P., J.L.G.Theuws, and P.Th.Henderson. Excretion of mutagens in human urine after passive smoking. Cancer Lett. 19:85–90, 1983.

Brain, J.D., D.E.Kundson, S.P.Sorokin, and M.A.Davis. Pulmonary distribution of particles given by intratracheal instillation or by aerosol inhalation. Environ. Res. 11:13–33, 1976.

DeMarini, D.M. Mutagenicity of fractions of cigarette smoke condensate in Neurospora crassa and Salmonella typhimurium. Mutat. Res. 88:363–374, 1981.

Harris, R.J., G.Negroni, S.Ludgate, C.R.Pick, F.C.Chesterman, and B.J.Maidment. The incidence of lung tumours in c5761 mice exposed to cigarette smoke: Air mixtures for prolonged periods. Int. J. Cancer 14:130–136, 1974.

International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monographs: Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans, Vol. 38, pp. 163–314. Tobacco Smoking. Lyons: IARC, 1986. 421 pp.

Leuchtenberger, C., and R.Leuchtenberger. Effects of chronic inhalation of whole fresh cigarette smoke and of its gas phase on pulmonary tumorigenesis in Snell’s mice, pp. 329–346. In P.Nettesheim, M.G. Hanna, Jr., and J.W.Deatherage, Jr., Eds. Morphology of Experimental Respiratory Carcinogenesis. Proceedings of a Biology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Conference, Gatlinburg, Tenn., May 13–16, 1970. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, 1970.

Lewtas, J., S.Goto, K.Williams, J.C.Chuang, B.A.Petersen, and N.K. Wilson. The mutagenecity of indoor air particles in a residential pilot field study. Atmos. Environ., in press.

Lofröth, G., L.Nilsson, and I.Alfheim. Passive smoking and urban air pollution: Salmonella/microsome mutagenicity assay of simultaneously collected indoor and outdoor particulate matter, pp. 515–525. In M.D. Waters, S.S.Sandhu, J.Lewtas, L.Claxton, N.Chernoff, and S.Nesnow, Eds. Short-Term Bioassays in the Analysis of Complex Environmental Mixtures. III. New York: Plenum, 1983.

The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement