Chapter 8 examines the use of biological markers, such as urinary cotinine, as indices of exposure to ETS.

There are several factors (Figure 4–1) that determine the composition and level of ETS air contaminants in the indoor environments. Determining the range of values for each of these factors will lead to an understanding of their impact on ETS exposures. Efforts to modify or eliminate exposures to ETS must focus on the factors that control the concentrations in the physical environment, since these factors result in the exposure that relates to the adverse health or comfort effect.


National Research Council, Committee on the Epidemiology of Air Pollutants. Epidemiology and Air Pollution. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1985. 224 pp.

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