vital statistics,


    National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey,


    National Health Interview Survey,


    Youth Risk Behavior Survey,


    Primary Care Provider Survey,


    National Survey of Worksite Health Promotion Activities,


    National Survey of Family Growth,


    Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey,


    National Household Survey on Drug Abuse,


    National Hospital Discharge Survey,


    National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System, and


    National Immunization Survey.

A brief description of the 12 data sets is provided in the publication Leading Indicators for Healthy People 2010 (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1998aa). These descriptions provide information about the purpose of the survey, the general content and format of the survey method of data collection, and the periodicity of data collection efforts. More detailed information is available from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and the particular agencies responsible for each data collection effort. It is expected that these 12 data sets will play a lead role in providing ongoing monitoring of the proposed leading health indicators for the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Each of the 12 data sets have been or will be modified to comply with current federal policies about the collection and reporting of race and ethnicity data. This is of critical importance to ensure that the appropriate subgroup analyses can be completed for the leading health indicators.

Additional federal databases may contain data that inform the proposed leading health indicator within the chosen set, such as motor vehicle accident rates, injuries, and deaths as a subset of preventable morbidity and mortality (National Traffic Safety Board), occupational injuries and deaths as a subset of preventable morbidity and mortality (U.S. Department of Labor), environmental data (Environmental Protection Agency), tobacco consumption patterns (Internal Revenue Service), the level of dissemination of information to patients about primary prevention behaviors such as exercise and immunizations (National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey), and levels of education (U.S. Department of Education). Succinct summaries of these and many other potential data sources that can be used to inform the proposed leading health indicators can be found in a number of recent publications including A Compendium of Selected Public Health Data Sources (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1996), Key Monitoring Indicators of the Nation's Health and Health Care and Their Support by NCHS Data Systems (Lewin-VHI, 1995), and Data Sources for Monitoring Progress Toward the Year 2000 Objectives for the Nation (Research Triangle Institute, 1990a, b).

Identification of the specific data sets that will be used to quantify the baselines and targets for the leading health indicators in the selected set is beyond the scope of this report for several reasons: (1) data will be available from multiple sources and it will be necessary to select the best data set(s) to inform each of the indicators; (2) the final format, structure, and language for each of the indicators and the selection of effective communications strategies will be determined only after one of the three proposed indicator sets is chosen; (3) the availability of data at the national, state, local, and community levels may be subject to change; and (4) reliability and validity of data for each of the indicators must be determined. Each of these issues is discussed in greater detail below.

First, among the eligible data sets, more than a single data set can capture information about specific indicators by different methodologies and sampling techniques. For example, information about cancer

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