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1. INTRODUCTION RESEARCH PROBLEM STATEMENT Research Problem Statement In 1956, the Interstate Highway Act was passed. This law was designed to provide the nation with a modern and effective highway system. At the time of the law's passage, few could envision the dramatic impact that the highway system would have on the economic and social structure of the American society. Development has followed the highway system because of its easy access, and many businesses and essential services have relocated from the inner cities to the outlying suburbs. This migration has included employment, health care, educational institutions, shopping, and social services. Despite the broad availability of the automobile, considerable segments of the population do not have access to the highway network because they do not own a car. These segments of the population, which include the nation's youth, the elderly, and low-income groups, remain dependent on public transportation systems. However, public transportation systems have not kept pace with changing land use patterns and, as a result, many transit-dependent users now find fewer essential destinations available to them. This lack of personal mobility has economic, social, and human costs, such as higher unemployment, reduced tax revenue, greater welfare and medical costs, and limited social potential. There is a need to define and measure the economic, social, and human costs of personal immobility and to identify public transportation services that will help reduce such costs. For the purposes of this project, the public transportation system is broadly defined to include publicly operated rail, bus, and light rail systems; school bus systems, social service agency transportation; paratransit; jitneys; private bus systems; and taxicabs. Many of these transportation services have specific trip purposes, and eligibility is sometimes limited to specific groups. However, some communities have effectively used various combinations of transportation services to reduce personal immobility. OBJECTIVES The objectives of this research are: to develop a methodology for economic analysis that will assist regions to estimate the economic, social and human costs of personal immobility; and to identify or develop public transportation practices to reduce such costs. 1-1

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The products developed as a result of this research will assist decision makers and transportation-service providers in using their services more effectively to address the issue of personal immobility. ORGANIZATION OF THIS REPORT In adclition to the Summary and this Introduction, the report includes five additional chapters, the Endnotes, and two Appendices. Chapter 2: Immobility Issues This chapter discusses who the transportation disadvantaged are, key barriers to improving mobility, and six significant public policy efforts that have been used to address the barriers to mobility: basic transit services; reverse commute services, demand responsive services, fare subsidy programs, livable communities, and social services coordination. Chapter 3: KeY Research Finclings Eight key findings are described, based on the case studies and compendium resulting from this research. The first finding is that retaining basic public transportation services is critical to improving the mobility of the transportation disadvantaged. Others describe how transportation practices can be both simple ideas and programs that are also economically beneficial. Successful practices develop partnerships, blend resources, bundle services, plan regionally, and assist in economic development. Chapter 4: Guide for Economic Analysis of Transit Practices This chapter explains the guiding principles and procedures that were used in conducting economic analyses of the consequences of immobility. Drawing on the case studies, the guide describes five recommended steps for economic analysis: (~) Describe project characteristics and costs; (2) Select economic study features, update cost factors; (3) Determine project patronage, identify mobility benefits; (3) (4) Estimate efficiency benefits of project; and (6) Calculate and interpret economic ~ nc Ices. Chapter 5: Compendium Examples of operational and community-based practices to address immobility are briefly presented to complement the in-depth case studies. The i_ ~ . . . a, - ~ ~ . ~ . i` ~ ompencllum contains o~ actcl~onal practices from urban, suburban and rural settings around the country. The Compendium is divided into sections dealing with 1-2

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Access to Jobs, Filling Mobility Gaps, Coordination with Health and Human Services, Elderly Services, Youth Services, Transit Oriented Development, and Vehicle Programs. Chapter 6: Implementation and Dissemination Plans The implementation plan builds on the key findings in Chapter 2 and adds a Checklist for Success. The chapter describes what an organization can do within its own cultural environment by adopting strategies necessary to replicate the successful projects studied during this research. A dissemination plan outlines audiences for this research and mechanisms to reach these audiences, including mass media distribution, traditional methods, and suggested additional products as outgrowths of the research. Appendix A: Case Studies In-depth documentation of 11 case studies conducted in six regions of the country is presented in Appendix A. Case studies describe one practice in a suburb of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; two in rural South Carolina; one in rural Missouri; one in Miami, Florida; three in Los Angeles, California; and three in Oakland, California and its suburbs. Appendix B: Literature Search: Who Are the Transportation Disadvantaged This chapter elaborates on the travel and demographic characteristics of the transportation disadvantaged described in Chapter 2. Appendix C: Glossary of Terms This appendix defines the key terms utilized in this research. 1-3

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