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VI . BI RTHS TO ADOLESCENTS This section presents information on the number of births to U.S. adolescents by the mother' s age, race, ethnicity, and marital status, and by the father' s age and race. Data on first births occurring to adolescent f emales as well as birth rates are presented . Also in- cluded are data on prenatal care among adolescent mothers and infant mortality rates for babies born to adolescent mothers. In the following tables, the data on births to adolescents are from the National Vital Statistics and the 1980 National Natality Survey. The data on births by mother's age and race are considered to be very reliable. However, the data on birth to fathers are less reliable be- cause there is a substantial under-reporting of the age of the father by adolescent females. Despite these limitations data are presented in order to provide a rough indication of the age of fathers of babies born to adolescent mothers. Data on births to adolescent males and females from the National Longitudinal Survey (NLS) are also presented and the same caution on under-reporting of fatherhood by males is relevant. Data on births to adolescent mothers of Hispanic origin are pre- sented separately to show variations among mothers of Hispanic origin and because comparable time series of data are not available for His- panic origin mothers. A-101 / 453

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A-103 / 455 TABLE 6.1 Table 6.1 shows the number of births by age of mother for females under 20, by race from 1955 to 1984. In general, the number of births to females under age 20 gradually increased from 1955 through the early 1970s and then began to steadily decline primarily due to changes in the number of women in these age g roups. See table 6.2 for data con- cerning the changes in births relative to the population of young women.

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. A-104 / 456 to to to Sat QJ U] s · - Q - Go 1 to Cat U] U] . - · - C) o al set o o a' - u: a a) s - - Cut · Q o ED 3 h S O O U] 1 u~ a d. ~ U] S~ 1 O d. ~ 01 U] 1 U~ ~ 1 tO O ~ V] 1 C~ U] 1 C~ ~ ~ c~ c~ ~ ~ ~ d' ~ In ao ~ · c ~ a ~ ~ ~ ~ a ~ · ~ ~ ~ ~ c O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O o~ oo ~ oo ~ o~ a~ c~ ~ ~ co d~ ~ ~ ~ 00 · a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a e~ ~ d. ~ ~ ~ ~ 00 ~ ~ ~ ·n 0 ~ ~ 0 c~ ~ u~ ~ ~ CX) ~ ~ ~r · ~ a a a a ~ a a a a a a a a e a a a c~ c~ ~ 0 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ,o C~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ a C~ ~ C~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ C~ ~ ~ ~ ~ L~ U' U~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~r ~ ~ ~ ~ a) ~ ~ 0 ~ 0 ~ a a a a a a a ~ a a a ~ a a a ~ a ~r ~r ~ ~ 0 ~ ~ ~ c~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ kD ~ kD U~ L~ ~ L~ In Lr) ~ ~ ~ cn ~ ~ 0 ~r cn ~ ~ ~1 a 1 fO l— O ~ C) C~ ~ _! 1 ~0 r~ 1 un o E~ N ~ lf) ~ ~ ~1 ~ 1D ~ N ~1 a a a a ~ a a a a · a ~ 0 ~1 ~ ~ ~ [r) N ~— O ~) O O ~ ~ ~1 ~) ~ LC) CS) ~ ~C) ~ ~ a, ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 0 ~ r~ ~ ~ 0 0 ~ ~ ~ · a a a a ~ · a a a a a a a a a a ~ ~1 ~ t() N ~ ~ O ~ 1— ~ O O r— ~) ~ ~1 ~) O ~1 ~ ~1 ~1 0 ~1 ~J ~1 - 1 ~ ~ In ~ ~ 11~) C~ CO ~ ~ O a a a a a a a a a a ~ a a a a 00 0D 0 ~ ~ ~ ~ O O ~ ~ ~ kD ~ ~r ~ r~ oo oo ao oo ~ oo co 0 ~ ~ ~ 0 · - . 0 ~r ~ u~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 0 · · a a · · · a a · a a · ~ c~ ~ c~ c~ ~ ~ ~ ~r ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ I ~) ~ ~ ~) ~ ~ ~) ~ ~) ~) ~ 1 O ~ U~ 0o CO ~ U~ ~ ~ U) ~ ~ ~ ~ kD · ~ a a a a a a a a ~ ~ a a ~ ~ a a a O ~ C~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ d. 00 0 U~ U) U~ U~ Lr~ LO Lr U~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 00 ~ 00 ~r u~ I ~ ~ ~ ~ ~1 ~ ~ ~ (N ~ ~ ~ N C~ ~ ~ ClO 0D ~ O 0 (1) ~ a a a a a a a a a a a a ~ · · a a a ~1 ~ ~ ~ ~ —1 ~1 ~1 ~1 _] .~1 ~ ~1 ~i ·— - 1 ~ O O 0 ~1 . - S O U] 0 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~n ~ ~ c~ ~ 0 ~ c LO 0 co oo oo ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ r~ kD ~ u~ ln a~ o, ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ cs. _i ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ . -

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A-105 / 457 Cal ~ N ~ Cal Cal ~ ~ Cal Cal ~ ~ tar ~4 ~ I— ED ~ O Cal ~ ~ e O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O ~ O be) In Us ~ ~ Lt-) Lt8) 0~) ~ Cot ~ ~ \0 ~ In 0 ·— ~ 10 ~1 · e ~ ~ e ~ ~ e . - ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ or ~ ~ ~ ~ or O ~ 0 ~ or a 0 00 ~ 0 ~ CD ~ CO CO O ~ ~ O ~1 HI C-1 At HI _ rat At ~~1 ~ ~1 HI Cot ~ A) <14 LO 1~) ~ ° ~ ~ ~ 0 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~r ~r a~ r" vo 0 kD ~ ~ c 0 c ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 0 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ er ~ 0 0 a~ ~o u~ ~ ~ ~ ~r ~ U) ~ ~ ~ d~ ~ ~C) kD ~ ~ LO U~ IS~ tf) U-) LlO ~ lr) ~ 1~ ~ O ~ O ~1 ~ ~1 0 ~ ~ ~ oo ~ ~ ~n ~ ~ ~ ~ 0 ~ oo ~ ~o · · · ~ ~ · ~ · · · · o · · ~ · ~ - 0 u~ ao ~ C~ ~ ~ LO 0o ~ ~ LO 0 ~ ~ ~ ~ 0 ~ 0 0 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~r ~ ~ oo ~ d' ~ ~ d. ~ ~n u~ ln · . · . · . o ~ · ~ O O O O O O O O O C~ ~ ~ 03 ~1 ~ ~ 00 ID · · · ~ ~ · · · ~ ~ 4n ~ u~ ~ ~ kD \9 0 ~ C~ C~ U~ ~ ~ ~ 00 · · · · · · · · · ~ d1 ~ ~r ~ ~r ~ u~ C~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ C~ c~ ~ ~r ~ ~ ~ u~ · · · · · · · · · ~ O O ~ O 0 l— U~ a, · · · · · ~ · · · ~ a:> ~ ~ u~ ~ ~ ~ O O O O O O O O O C) ,~1 ~ ~1 ~ _' ~1 ~ _1 ~ ~1 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 0 ~ r~ ~ ~ 0 ~ ao ~ ~ ao 00 co ~ ~ [~ ~ ~ ~ ~ oo ~ Ll~ ~ · · 0 ~ · · · · · · ~ · · 0 · · · · · · . · · · · · · . . LO 00 ~ ~r ~ ~r ~ ~ C~ u~ 0 ~ r~ ~ ~ ~o ~o ~ ~ 0 ~ O 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ~ ~ c~ ~ ~ a' u~ ~ a~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~r ~ ~ d. a) ~ ~ 0 ~ C~ 0 ~ ~ ~ ~ u~ 0 ~r ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ u~ · ~ · ~ · · · · e e · · · · ~ ~ ~ O ~ ~ e 0 C10 0 ~I N ~1 ~ O O ~ t— ~ d' C~ ~ I I I I C~ O ~) 10 00 0 ~ C~ C~ C~ ~ kD 1~ ~ 1 - 1— 1— ~ t— a~ ~ 0 1 1 1 1 ~ ~) ~) ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ u~ o~ oo ~ ~ ~ ~ a~ ~ ~ 0 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ r~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 0 · ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ · ~ ~ · · * · ~ ~ ~ ~ · ~ · ~ c ~ · ~ ~) ~ u~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ C~ ~ a) ~ 1 1 1 1 ~ O _1 0 ~ u~ 10 C~ ~ ~1 ~ CN C~ ~ ~ ~ C~ C~ ~ C~J C~ ~l 1 1 1 1 MC) ~ ~ CD ~r a~ 0 0 ~ ~p ~ ~ ~ 0 0 ~ · ~ 0 a · · · ~ · e · ~ · ~ e =4 d4 ~r) ~ ~4 ~4 ~ ~— ~ ~ t') 1— O ~ ~ O d ~ ~ d' ~J4 ~Iq 1~ Ir) U] ~ 1~ U) O ~ O ~ ~ ~ ~ CC e ~ e e · e ~ ~ · e U) ~ ~ ~ O ~ O O O O O O kD ~ ~ ID kD kD L9 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ U) U~ ~ ~ ~r ~ ~r ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~r e e e e · ~ c ~ ~ ~ ~ e e e ~ e e e ~ ~ · · 4v · 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ~r ~ ~ ~ ~r ~ ~ ~ ~r Lr kD kD L9 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ U) U~ ~ ~ ~r ~ ~r e e ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ e e e ~ e e e ~ Y ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ O ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ O ~ O ~ O ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ O .—oo co ~ a; oo r~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ c~ ~ ~ ~ Lfl U~ GS OG ac co ~ oo ~ cs~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ cs~ ~ ~ O\ ~ ~ ~ cn cr ~ ~ - ~ - m ~ -~ -

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A-106 / 458 U] fir 1 Lo fir ~ ~ U] fir 1 o fir ~ of U] 1 US ~ A 1 o ~ ~ U] Cal 1 Cal ~ U] 1 GS 0 a) 1 - · - o i_ U) En a) s o o U] a, 1 1 U) o En 1 ~ 0 a' 'fir J:: C) a) ~ a · e ~ ~ e ~ O O O O ~ ~ 00 · ~ ~ ~ a ~ ~ 00 ~ ~ Cal 00 0 ~ ~ ~ on · ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ cad 0 a' kD · · · · ~ · ~ d4 CD d' fir ~ fir us en ~ ~ of ~ en · · · · ~ · ~ car ao Lo ~ Go of of ~ ~ ~ Go ~ ~ 0 ~ ~ a' · · · · · · ~ us ~ ~ ~ us cr. en Lo ~ ~ · · · · ~ C~1 ~ 1 1 Us ~ 1— ~ 0 1 1 0 0 us or ~ · · · · ~ o ~ ~ ~ ~ 1 1 a, ~ 0 1 1 oo us ~ (D · · · · · · ~ or ~ 0 So fir LO 0 fir ~ ~ can · · · · · · ~ us us fir fir ~ ~ ~ ~ us rip ON cs, ~ an ~ C51 U] o u] cn · - :~ o u] ·_1 u] · - u] u] · - u] · - u) so - ~ in o lo o : a) o u] a) ~3 A)

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A-107 / 459 TABLE 6.2 . Table 6.2 shows the birth rates by age of mother and race of child from 1950 to 1984. Data are from National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) and U.S. Bureau of Census. In general, there was a decline in the rate of births per 1, 000 women between 1950 and 1984 for women aged 15 to 49. The decline was most steep among older women. The birth rate for women aged 15 to 19 declined by 25 percent between 1970 to 1984 r f rom 68.3 to 50. 9 births per 1, 000 women. Between 1970 and 1984 the birth rate for teenagers aged 15 to 17 declined by about 20 percent ~ from 38. 8 to 31. 1 per 1, 000) compared to a decline of 32 percent for women aged 18 to 19 (from 114.7 to 78~3 per 1,000) . The birth rates for black teenage women have consistently been at least two times higher than the rates for white women even though there was a decline in the birth rates for both races. For white women in 1984 there were 420 5 births per 1, 000 women aged 15 to 19, 24 births per 1, 000 women aged 15 to 17 and 68 births per 1, 000 women age 18 to 19. These rates had decreased by 26, 18 and 33 percent respec- tively f rom 1970 to 1984. For black women there were about 96 births per 1, 000 women aged 15 to 19, 70 per 1, 000 for women aged 15 to 17 and 132 per 1, 000 for women aged 18 to 19 in 1984. The rates for black women decreased by 35, 31 and 36 percent respectively f rom 1970 to 1982 . The birth rates for teens aged 10 to 14 are low and remained fairly stable throughout this period. However, for black teenagers th, s age, the birth rate has been at least seven times higher than the rate for white teenagers in all years. !

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A-108 / 460 o a, - ~r CO a, 1 U~ U. a, eq Y m · ~ v m f5: ~ Q o U~ U' ~ ~ o o o o o o o o o o o 03 ~ ~ o ~ o o o o o o o o o o o L9 ~ ~ ~ co ~ 0 r. ~ ~ ~ a, ~ ~ u~ OD 1 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ oo L~ L~ L~ Lr, ~ ~ ~r ~ ~ oo ~ ~ ·~ ~ a, L9 ~o vo ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ un Ln ~ un u~ ~ ~ 00 ~ er O O O O O O O O O O O 0 oo 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ~ ~ ~ c~ a~ ~ ~ ~ U. ~ 0 ~ ~ er c~ 1 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ u~ ~ ~ ~D ~ ~ C~ ~ ~r ~r ~ kD ~ ~ ~ a: ~ ~ U) U~ tn U) ~ ~ ~o vo ~ k9 ~ ~ ~ ~ U U. 54 ~ ~ U~ ~ ~ o o o o o o o o o o o r~ u, 0 kD O O O O O O O O O O O O `m ~ ~ ~ ~ U~ ~ C~ ~ U~ ~ ~ oD ~ . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ :D ~ ~ ~ Lr~ ~ kD un \9 ~D ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ kD \0 a~ 1 ao ·e ~ l o O U) ~ ~ ~n tS .,, ~ s 54 m 3 a) O Z a, ·,, u) a) 1 - ~ 4 u] 1 p s u) E~ JJ ~ .-' ~ H S P S .,' m O 1 0o o ~ 1 0 Lr) o U] k4 ~ In Q V ~ Z ~ ~ <: o U~ U' ~ ~ O O O C 03 1n u~ 0 ~1 0 0 0 C L9 ~ ~ ~ co ~ 0 r. u: L~ L~ Ln Lr) ~ ~ ~r ~ oc L0 ~ LD L0 ~ kg kD ~ Lr CO ~ ~ O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O ~ CO 1— ~l ~ O ~ 1~ a~ ~ 0 kD 1— 0 10 l~ ~ 11~ ~ _I 0D r— kD 1— ~0 a~ c7~ ~o ~ oo a~ 0 ~ u~ er ~ tD r~ a~ ~ ~ ~r 0 c~ ~ ~ ~ 0 ~ ~ ~ ~ co oo ~ ~ U~ ~r D tO ~ tD kD ~ \9 kD ~ ~ ~ ~ tSJ (D Ir~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~) ~) C~ ~ C~ N ~ ~ C~ C~l ~r ~ ~ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 oo ~ a, u~ ~ O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O 0 0 0 0 0 oo ~ ~r ·n oo ~ ~ ~ ao ~ ~ ~ C~ ~ 0 c~ ao ~ oo kD er O CO CD U~ er ~ ~ C~ O U) ~ U~ ~ U~ kD kD ~ ~ ~ r~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~r ~ ~r ~r ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ O ~ o0 ~ ~ O O C OD ~ ~ 0D L9 0 0 C 0 ~ ~ ~ u~ OC oo r~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ In 0 ~r 0 0 0 0 c c~ ~ ~ ~ 0 0 0 0 C c~ c~ 0 ~ ~ cn ~r In ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ _ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ' ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~4 c~ ~ 0 ~ co r~ kD ~ ~ ~ C~ ~ O C~ co ~ ~ U) ~r ~ c~ ~ 0 C~ oo ~ ~ u~ oo oo oo co oo r~ ~ ~ r~ r~ r~ ~ r~ ~ ~ ~c ~D ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ UO In u~ u~ ~ ~ cr ~ ~ a~ a~ ~ ~ o~ ~ ~ t~ o~ ~ 0h ~ ~ cn ~ a~ ~ ~ ~ a~ CJ~ a~ ~ ~ a~ . ~0 a, Q E~ a U] · - ~n g :3 eQ a 4~ u) .,- :D a s o u] c) .~' · eQ ' ~ u) o 4~ o .- - ~ u] ~ u ~ . - Q JJ a~ U) S 0 4~ q) := ~ O 4~ k4 a, k4 a ~n ~n ~ U O _1 p~ m :~ S" o 4~ Q ~C ·e U :' o U)

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A-109 / 4 61 TABLE 6 . 3 Table 6.3 shows the total estimated number of out-of-wedlock births for mothers under age 20 from 1955 to 1984. Data are from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). In general, there was a rise in the number of out of wedlock births to women under age 20 from 1955 to 1984. Among white women, the number of out of wedlock births to women under age 15 rose in 1975 to 3,600 and then declined to 3,225 births in 1981. Out-of-wedlock births to women 15 to 17 and 18 to 19 rose in number throughout this per iod. There were over f ive times as many births to single white women in 1984 as in 1955, (10,600 compared to 57,848 for women aged 15 to 17 and 13,100 compared to 72,829 for women aged 18 to 19~. The number of out-of-wedlock births to nonwhite women under age 20 was generally higher than the number to whites; however the magnitude of the difference has declined over time. In 1955, white women less than 15 years of age had 70 percent fewer out of wedlock births than nonwhite women, 900 compared to 3,000 births. By 1984, white women under age 15 had about 46 percent fewer out of wedlock births than non white women, 3,193 versus 5,882 births. The decline in the difference between the number of births to nonwhite and white single women aged 15 to 17 and 18 to 19 was even more dramatic. There were 56 percent fewer births to single white women aged 15 to 17 compared to non-white women in 1955 and only 1 percent fewer in 1984. For women aged 18 to 19 there were 40 percent fewer out-of-wedlock births to whites than nonwhites in 1955, but 7 percent more out-of-wedlock births to whites than nonwhites in 1984. Among black women, the number of out-of-wedlock births started to decline during the 1970's. The number of births to unmarried black women under age 15 declined 27 percent between the peak in 1974 and 1984, (7,700 compared to 5,634) births. The number of out-of-wedlock births to black women aged 15 to 17 declined by 19 percent from the 1973 peak to 1984, (67,000 to 54,062 births). The number of births to single black women aged 18 to 19 declined by about 2 percent f rom the peak in 1979 to 1984, (67,100 to 65,680 births).

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A-110 / 462 TABLE 6.4 Birth Rates For Unmarried Women by Age of Mother and Race of Child: United States, 1970-84 (rates are live births to unmarried women per 1,000 unmarried women in specif fed group, estimated as of July 1) Age of Mothe r 15-19 Years Years and 15-17 18-l' Race of Child Total Years Years All Races 1984 30.2 21.9 43.0 1983 29.7 22.1 41.0 1982 28.9 21.5 40.2 1981 28.2 20.9 39.9 1980 27.6 20.6 39.0 1979 26.4 19.9 37.2- 1978 24.9 19.1 35.1 1977 25.1 19.8 34.6 1976 23.7 19.0 32.1 1975 23.9 19.3 32.5 1974 23.0 18.8 31.2 1973 22.7 18.7 30.4 1972 22.8 18.5 30.9 1971 22.3 17.5 31.7 la70 22.4 17.1 32.9 white . . 1984 1983 1982 1981 1980 1979 1978 1977 1976 1975 1974 1973 1972 1971 1970 19.0 18.5 17.7 17.1 16.2 14.6 13.6 13.4 12.3 12.0 11.0 10.6 10.4 10.3 10.9 13.5 13.5 12.9 12.4 11.8 10.8 10.3 10.5 9.7 9.6 8.8 8.4 8.0 7.4 7.5 27.6 26.1 25.1 24.6 23.6 21.0 19.3 18.7 16.9 16.5 15.3 14.9 15.1 15.8 17.6

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A-111 / 463 TABLE 6 . 4 ~ cont ineud) Age of Mother 15-19 Years Years and 15-17 18-19 Race of Child Total Years Years A 11 Other 1984 78.3 59.3 106.1 1983 78.3 60.2 104.6 1982 79.2 60.7 107.0 1981 79.2 60.3 109.0 1980 81.7 63.1 111.6 1979 83.9 64.8 115.3 1978 81.2 63.2 111.6 1977 84.0 67.2 112. 7 1976 82.5 67.5 108.9 1975 86.3 70. 7 114 .3 1974 87. 3 73 .2 113.4 la73 88.5 75.6 112. 8 1972 91.8 77.6 119.3 1971 92.0 75.4 125.4 1970 90. 8 73.3 126. 5 Black 1984 87.1 66.8 116.2 1983 86.4 67.1 114. 1982 87.0 67.6 115. 1981 86.8 66.9 117. ~ 1980 89.2 69.6 120.2 1979 91.0 71.0 123. 1978 87.9 68.8 119. 1977 90.9 73.0 121. ~ 1976 89. 7 73.5 117.9 1975 92. ~ 76.8 123.8 1974 93.8 78.6 122.2 1973 94 ~ 9 81.2 120.5 1972 98.2 82.8 128.2 1971 98.6 80.7 135.2 1970 96. 9 77. 9 136.4 Source: NCHS Advanced. Reported of Natality Statistics 1984, Monthly Vital Statistics Report, Vol 35, No. 4, July .L986.

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A-122 / 474 TABLE 6.9 Percentage Of Mothers Receiving Inadequate Prenatal Care ~ third trimester only or no care), By Age Group According To Race And Ethnicity, Residence And Mar ital Status, Nat tonal Natal ity Survey 1980 Age G roup ~ 20 20-24 25 Total 9. 8 4.9 2.9 Race/E thn ic i ty Black (non-Hispanic) 12.8 6.4 3.6 Wh i te ~ non-H i span ic ~ 8 . 3 3 . 9 2 . 5 H ispanic 11. 9 11.4 6.4 Res idence Metropolitan 10.3 4.8 2.7 Non-metropol itan 8. 9 5.3 3 . 4 Mar ital Status Married 5.0 3.4 2.5 Unmarried 14.8 11.4 7.0 Source: S. Singh, A. Torres and J.D. Forrest, "The Need for Prenatal Care in the United States: Evidence from the 1980 National Natality Survey", Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 17, No. 3, 1985.

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A-123 / 475 TABLE 6.9 Table 6.9 shows the percentage of mothers receiving inadequate prenatal care ~ third trimester only or no care), by age group ac- cording to race and ethnicity, residence, and marital status. The data are f rom the 1980 National Natality Survey (NNS) . These data indicate that in 1980, 9.8 percent of all mothers under age 20 received inadequate prenatal care, compared to 4.9 percent of mothers aged 20 to 24 and 2.9 percent of mothers aged 25 and over. Black mothers under age 20 were the most likely to receive inadequate prenatal care, 12.8 percent compared to ll.9 percent of Hispanic and 8.3 percent of white mothers, even though Hispanic mothers of other ages were more likely than black or white women to receive inadequate care. Also, unmarried mothers of all ages were more likely than marr fed mothers to have had inadequate prenatal care.

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A-124 / 476 TABLE 6.10 Number and Percent Of Live Births With Low Birth Weight and Live Births by Birth Weight, by Age of Mother and Race of Child: United States, 1983; Based On 100 Percent Of Births In Selected States And On A 50-percent Sample Of ~ irths In All Other States Low Birth Weight Age of Mother and Race of Ch ild Number Percent Total All Races All ages 246,105 6.7 3,669,141 Under 15 years 1,350 13.6 9,96S 15-19 years 43, 817 9.3 469, 682 15 years 2,744 11.4 24,142 16 years 5, 789 10.9 53,178 17 years 8, 719 9.8 89, 424 18 years 12,087 9.3 130,159 19 years 14, 478 8.4 172, 779 20-24 years 78,444 6.9 1,141,578 25-29 years 68,224 5.9 1,165,711 30-34 years 38, 762 5.9 658, 496 35-39 years 13,180 6.7 195, 755 40-44 years 2,220 8.3 26,846 45-49 years 108 9. 8 1,108 White All ages 163,117 5.6 2,923,502 Under 15 years 428 10.8 3, 959 15-19 years 24, 503 7. 6 320, 953 15 years 1,187 9.2 12,869 16 years 2,981 9.2 32,529 17 years 4,794 8.1 59,618 18 years 6 '968 7. 7 90, 470 19 years 8,573 6.8 125,467 20-24 years 51,122 5.7 898,919 25-29 years 48,138 5.0 969,061 30-34 years 28, 013 5.1 549, 595 35-39 years 9, 302 5.9 159,246 40-44 years 1,540 7.4 20,974 45-49 years 71 9.0 795 All Other All ages 82, 988 11.1 745, 639 Under 15 years 922 15.4 6,006 15-19 years 19,314 13.0 148,729 15 years 1, 557 13.8 11,273 16 years 2,808 13.6 20,649 17 years 3,925 13.2 29,806 18 years 5,119 12.9 39,689 19 years 5,905 12.5 47, 312 20-24 years 27, 322 11.3 242, 659 25-29 years 20,086 10.2 196,650 30-34 years 10, 749 9. 9 108, 901 35-39 years 3,878 10.6 36,509 40-44 years 680 11.6 5, 872 45-49 years 37 11.9 313 Black All ages 73,178 12.4 592, 745 Under 15 years 891 15.6 5, 720 15-19 years 18,147 13.5 134, 392 15 years 1, 501 14.1 10, 637 16 years 2, 678 14.0 19,158 17 years 3,703 13.7 27,112 18 years 4,782 13.4 35,656 19 years 5,483 13.1 41,829 20-24 years 24, 699 12.2 203, 562 25-29 years 17,231 11.7 147,111 30-34 years 8, 640 11.7 73, 858 3S-39 years 3, 018 12.6 24, 028 40-44 years S30 13.6 3, 906 4S-49 years 22 13.1 168 1Less than 2, 500 grams. Sources: NCHS, "Advanced Final Natality by Statistics, 1983", Monthly Vital Statistics Report, Vol. 35, No. 4, July 1986.

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A-125 / 477 TABLE 6.10 Table 6.10 shows the number and percent of babies with low birth weight by age and race of mother in 1984 . Data are f rom the National Center for Health Statistics. In general, mothers less than age 20 and aged 40 to 49 were more likely than women aged 20 to 39 to have babies with low birth weights. Over 13 percent of the babies born to women under age 15 had low birth rates, more than 9 percent of those born to women aged 15 to 19, 8.3 percent of those born to women aged 40 to 44, and almost 10 percent born to women aged 45 to 49. Black babies born to mothers of all ages were more likely to have low birth weights than white babies. About 6 percent of all white babies had low birth weights compared to over 11 percent of all black babies. Over 1Q percent of the white babies born to teens less than age 15 and 7.6 percent of the white babies born to teens aged 15 to 19 had low birth weights compared to 15.4 percent of black babies born to teens under age 15 and 13.0 percent of those born to teens aged 15 to 19. 1

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A—126 / 478 TABLE 6.11 Estimated Cumulative Percent of Women Aged 15 to 19 Ever Experiencing A First Birth By Single Year of Age, Race And Ethnicity*, 1982 National Survey of Family Growth Agel Cumulative Percent Having a First Birth Total Sample 16 17 18 19 N Whites 15 16 17 18 19 N Blacks 5 16 17 18 19 N H ispanics 15 16 17 18 19 1253 N 159 0.2 3.2 5.5 12.0 17.1 2.2 3.3 10.7 13.2 102 7.8 15.5 20.3 39.8 5.1 29.6 47.0 \ --Cell sizes were less than 20. *H ispanic persons may be of any race, and whites and blacks may include Hispanic persons. Single years of age refer to the midpoints in the age intervals, e.g., 15 means 15.5 years. Source: Special tabulations from the 1982 National Survey of Family Growth, conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics, DHHS.

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A-127 / 479 TABLE 6 . 11 . Table 6.11 presents the estimated cumulative percent of women aged 15 to 19 ever experiencing a first birth by age, race and ethnicity. The data are f rom the 1982 National Survey of Family Growth (NSEG) . These data indicate that among all women, 17.1 percent had a first birth before age 20. The estimated proportion of women having a first birth before age 20 was the highest for Hispanic women, 47.0 percent, compared to 39.8 percent for black women and 13.2 percent for white women. Most of these births occur at ages 18 and 19. At age 17, blacks are 3 times more likely than Hispanic women to have had a birth.

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A-128 / 480 TABLE 6.12 Cumulative Percent Having A First Birth By Single Year Of Age, Race And Ethnicityl, And By Mother's Education, Education in 1979; 1983 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Total S ample Males Respondent' s Mother's Education Females Age* IS =HS ~ HS IS =HS IS Total Sample 15 16 17 18 19 20 N Whites 15 16 17 18 19 20 N .1 .1 .4 .2 1.2 .6 3.1 1.4 6.5 3.2 11.7 5.8 1808 1878 o .2 .2 .6 2.1 9.1 4.8 814 1359 0 .7 .1 3.4 .1 9.1 .5 16.5 1.0 24.3 2.7 34.6 790 1975 o O O o .3 .1 .9 .2 2.9 1.6 6.0 2.5 10.2 5.2 16.0 7.5 1791 756 ·s 2.1 6.4 .3 13.1 .6 19.8 2.1 30.9 13.9 6.3 592 833 1288 577 .2 .7 2.1 1.1 4.4 1.7 8.3 4.3 o ~ HS ~ HS OCR for page 101
A-129 / 481 TABLE 6. 12 l Table 6.12 displays the cumulative percent reporting a first birth by mother's education. Data are from the 1983 National Longitudinal Su rvey of Youth (NLS) . Males were less likely than females to report having a child by age 20, despite the higher percent of males than females who were sexually active by age 20. Also, blacks were more likely than whites or Hispanics to report a f irst birth by age 20 regardless of their mother's education. In general, however' adolescent males whose mothers had less than high school educations were more likely to have child by age 20 than those whose mother' s education was high school or more . Of all males, the proportion with a child was about 12 percent among those whose mother' s education was less than high school, less than 6 percent among those whose mothers had completed high school, and less than 3 percent among males whose mothers had gone beyond high school educat ion. Among the females, the proportion reporting a birth by age 20 was about 35 percent among those whose mother's education was less than high school, 16 percent of those whose mothers had a high school edu- cat'on and 8 percent among those whose mothers had more than a high school education. Blacks were more likely to report having a birth, regardless of the mother's education.

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A-130 / 482 TABLE 6.13 Infant Mortality Rates (deaths at less one year of age per 1, 000 live births) By Age Of Mother, U.S. 1960 Study Of Infant Mortality From Linked Records And 1980 National Natality Survey/National Death Index (NNS/NDI ~ 1960 Study of of L inked Records Age of Mother Rate 1980 NNS/NDI - Standard Percent Rate Er ror Dec. 1 ine Under 20 years 33.1 17.4 2.4 47.4 20-24 24.2 12.5 1.3 48.3 25-29 22.4 9.8 1.3 56.3 30-34 23.7 14.7 2.5 38.0 35+ years 26.7 18.4* 7.7 31.1 *Infant mortality rates based on less than 30 sample cases do not meet standards of reliability or precision. Sou rce: K .G . Keppel, P .J . Placek, G .A . S. impson and S . S . Kessel "Infant Mortality Rates f rom the 1980 National Natality Survey and Twenty Year Trend Comparisons" NCHS, Unpublished paper, 1985.

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A-131 / 483 TABLE 6.13 Table 6.13 presents infant mortality rates by age of mother for 1960 and 1980. The 1960 data are from the Study of Infant Mortality From L inked Records and the 1980 data are from the National Natality Survey/National Death Index. These data indicate that in 1960 mothers under age 20 had the highest infant mortality rate, 33.1 infant deaths per 1,000 live births. In 1980, the infant mortality rate for mothers under age 20 was 17.4 deaths per 1,000 births, a 47.4 percent decline. The infant mortality rates in 1980 for mothers under age 20 were still higher than for mothers aged 20 to 34, despite the overall decline in U.S. infant mortality rates. The rate for mothers over age 35 is based on too few cases to be a reliable estimate.

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