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VI I I . ADOLESCENT PARENTS This section presents information on characteristics of adolescent parents. Data on educational attainment, subsequent pregnancies, and social and economic status of the parents are shown. These data are from the 1983 National Longitudinal Survey (NLS) and 1982 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG). The major controls used in these tables are race and age and no tests of statistical significance are presented. These data are included to provide a descr iption of the character istics of adolescent parents. Caution should be used in drawing conclusions f rom these tables on consequences of adolescent parenthood. A-141 / 493

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A-142 / 494 TABLE 8.1 Percent of Women Aged 20-29 Completing High School By Age At Birth Of First Child, Race And Ethnicity*, 1982 National Survey cuff Family Growth Percent of Women 20-29 Completing Less Than 12 Years of Schooling Age at Number First Birth Percent of Women Total Mothers 25 (1739) Under 15 68 (42) 15-17 51 (424) 18-19 34 (467) 20-21 19 (358) 22-24 10 (312) 25-29 5 (133) Women with no births 7 (1252) White Total Mothers 26 (764) Under 15 -- (2) 15-17 55 (116) 18-19 39 (170) 20-21 21 (181) 22-24 10 (204) 25-29 5 (90 Women with no births 6 (820) Black Total Mothers 26 (942) Under 15 62 (40) lS-17 43 (304) 18-19 23 (286) 20-21 11 (172) 22-24 8 (101) 25-29 0 (37) Women with no births 9 (404) Hispanic Total Mothers 58 (113) Under IS -- (o) 15-17 76 (23) 18-19 69 (21) 20-21 55 (38) 22-24 39 (24) 25-29 -- Women with no births 17 (51) Cell sizes were less than 20. *Hispanic Persons may be of any race, and whites and blacks may include Hispanic persons. Source: Special tabulations f rom the 1982 National Survey of Family Growth, Cycle III, conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics, DHHS.

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A-143 / 495 TABLE 8. 1 Table 8.1 shows the percent of women aged 20 to 29 completing less than 12 years of schooling by age at f irst birth, race and ethnicity. The data are f ram the 1982 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) . In general, women who had a f irst birth before age 20 were con- s~derably more likely to complete less than 12 years of schooling than women who gave birth at age 20 or later. The percent of women cow pleting less than 12 years of schooling was 68 percent for those under aged 15, 51 percent for those aged 15 to 17, and 34 percent for women aged 18 to 19 at f irst birth, compared to 19 percent of women aged 20 to 21, 10 percent of women aged 22 to 24 and 5 percent of women aged 25 to 29 at f irst birth. Additionally, white and Hispanic women with age at f irst birth less than 20 were more likely to complete less than 12 years of schooling than black women. For instance, 55 percent of the white women and 76 percent of the Hispanic women aged 15 to 17 at f irst birth completed less than 12 years of schooling compared to 43 percent of the black women aged 15 to 17 at f irst birth.

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A-144 / 496 TABLE 8.2 Percent of Mothers Aged 20-29 Having A Subsequent Birth Within 24 Months Of The First, By Their Age at First Birth, Race And Ethnicity*, 1982 National Survey of Family Growth % of Women 20-24 w/2nd Birth Within 24 Months of 1st (n) % of Women 25-29 w/2nd Birth Within 24 Months of 1st (N) % of Women 20-29 w/2nd Birth Within 24 Months of 1st (I) Age at First Number Number Number Birth Percent of Women Percent of Women Percent of Women Total All Mothers 17 (653) 18 (1086) 18 (1739) Under 15 18 (24) __ (18) 16 (42) 15-17 18 (187) 20 (237) 19 (424) 18-19 25 (203) 24 (264) 25 (467) 20-21 14 (167) 17 (191) 15 (358) 22-24 7 (71) 18 (241) 16 (312) 25-29 n.a. n.a. 11 (133) 11 (133) White Total 18 (262) 17 (502) 18 (764) Under 15 -- (2) -- (0) -- (2) 15-17 16 (51) 17 (65) 16 (116) 18-19 27 (78) 24 (92) 26 (170) 20-21 15 (87) 18 (94) 16 (181) 22-24 8 (44) 18 (160) 15 (204) 25-29 n.a. n.a. 10 (90) 10 (90) \ Black Total 17 (380) 21 (562) 19 (942) under 15 20 (22) __ (18) 16 (40) 15-17 25 (134) 28 (170) 27 (304) 18-19 17 (120) 24 (166) 20 (286) 20-21 9 (77) 13 (95) 11 (172) 22-24 4 (26) 19 (75) 15 (101) 25-29 n.a. n.a. 10 (37) 10 (37) Hispanic. Total 11 (34) 20 (79) 16 (113) Under 15 -- (0) -- (0) -- (0) 15-17 -- (9) -- (14) 14 (23) 18-19 -- (6) __ (15) 34 (21) 20-21 -- (15) 9 (23) 13 (38) 22-24 -- (4) 14 (20) 11 (24) 25-29 n.a. n.a. -- (7) -- (7) --Cell sizes were les than 20. *Hispanic persons may be of any race, and whites and blacks may include Hispanic persons. Nina. - not applicable. Source: Special tabulations from the 1982 National Survey of Family Growth, conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics, DHHS.

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A-145 / 497 TABLE 8.2 Table 8.2 shows the percent of women aged 20 to 29 having a subse- quent birth within 24 months by their age at first birth. The data are from the 1982 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG). Among women aged 20 to 29, 19 percent of the blacks, 18 percent of the whites and 16 percent of the Hispanics had a second birth within 24 months of the first. The highest percent having a second birth among white and Hispanic women aged 20 to 29 were women who first gave birth at age 18 or 19, 25 and 34 percent respectively. Among black women however, women who first gave birth at ages 15 to 17 were the most likely to have a second birth within 24 months. In general, women who first gave birth before age 20 were at least as likely, and in some cases more likely, than women aged 20 to 29 at f irst birth to have a second birth within 24 months of the f irst.

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A-146 / 498 TABLE 8.3 Cumulative Percentage Of Metropolitan-Area Women Aged 15-19 Who Had A Premarital Second Pregnancy, By Number Of Months Following Outcome Of The Premarital First Pregnancy, According To Race, Outcome And Age At Conclusion Of First Pregnancy, 1971, 1976 And 1979 Months Race Outcome Age After 1st Outcome by Year Total White Black Birth Abortion 6 16 17-19 1971 (N=214) (N=36) (N=178) (N=173) (N=41) (N=110) (N=104) 6 7.8 0.0 12.4 8.2 6.6 7.8 7.9 12 12.4 2.2 18.0 13.2 9.6 14.4 9.4 18 23.0 10.5 29.0 23.1 23.3 21.5 30.1 24 33.1 31.7 33.9 23.8 60.6 33.3 30.1 1976 (N=175) (N=50) (N=125) (N=126) (N=49) (N=100) (N=75) 6 7.5 8.4 6.3 6.7 8.4 4.2 10.7 12 19.9 17.1 21.9 23.4 13.0 20.7 17.5 18 27.2 17.1 34.4 33.4 15.0 26.2 28.5 24 36.0 26.2 42.8 36.0 39.3 31.7 44.4 1979 (N=290) (N=110) (N=180) (N=169) (N=121) (N=181) (N=109) 6 6.4 6.3 6.6 3.7 9.0 6.0 6.6 12 17.5 18.2 16.1 17.1 18.0 15.2 22.9 18 23.8 24.7 22.3 25.5 22.8 21.2 30.7 24 30.7 29.8 32.7 37.8 25.1 29.3 30.7 Source: M.A. Koenig and M. Zelnik. "Repeat Pregnancies Among Metropolitan Area Teenagers: 1971-1979," Family Planning Perspectives 14 (6) (November/December), Table 2, 1982. Reprinted by permission.

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A-147 / 499 TABLE 8.3 Table 8.3 presents the cumulative percentage of metropolitan-area women aged 15 to 19 who reported a second premarital pregnancy, by the number of months following the outcome of the first premarital preg- nancy, by race, outcome, and age at conclusion of first pregnancy. Data are from the 1971, 1976 and 1979 National Surveys of Young Women (NSFG) in which we recognize abortions are under-reported. A higher cumulative percent of black teens reported a second pre- marital pregnancy within 24 months after the outcome of the first pre- mar ital pregnancy than white teens in 1971, 1976 and 1979. Among white teens 32 percent in 1971, 26 percent in 1976 and 30 percent in 1979 re- ported second prennanc ies within 24 months while among the black teens 34 percent in 1971, 43 percent in 1976 and 33 percent in 1979 had second pregnant ies within 24 months. Among black teens, 34 percent in 1971, 43 percent in 1976 and 33 percent in 1979 had a second premarital pregnancies within two years of the outcome of the f irst premar ital pregnancy. Among women who reported a f irst premar ital birth the cumulative percent having a second pregnancy within 24 months was 24 percent in 1971, 36 percent in 1976 and 38 percent in 1979. The cumulative per- cent of those reporting a first premarital abortion who became pregnant a second time within 24 months after the abortion was 25 percent in 1979, 39 percent in 1976 and 61 percent in 1971. By 24 months after the resolution of a first premarital pregnancy, more women under age 16 than women aged 17 to 19 had a second preg- nancy in 1971, 33 compared to 30 percent. In contrast, in 1976 and 1979 more women aged 17 to 19 than age 16 or under had a second pregnancy: 44 and 32 percent in 1976, and 31 and 29 percent in 1979.

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Age at First Birth A-148 / 5 00 TABLE 8.4 Receipt Of AFDC Among Women Aged 20-29 By The Women's Age At First Birth, Race, And Ethnicity* ~ 1982 National Survey of Family Growth Percent of Women 20-29 Receiving Any AFDC Income Numbe r Percent of Women - Total All Mothers Under 1 S 15-17 18-19 20-21 22-24 25-29 Women with no births White All Mothers Under 15 15-17 18-19 20-21 22-24 25-29 Women with no births Black All Mothers under 15 15-17 18-19 20-21 22-24 25-29 Women with no births H i span ic All Mothers Under 15 5_17 18-19 20-21 22-24 25-29 Women with no births 13 45 20 21 14 3 2 1 9 12 17 0 2 1 33 53 39 31 36 15 9 4 12 9 25 18 1 3 (1739) (42) (424) (467) (358) (312) (133) (1252) (764) (2) (116) (170) (181) (204) (90) (820) (942) (4o) (304) (2 86) (172) (101) (37) (404) (113) (O) (23) (21) (38) (24) (7) (51) --Cell sizes were less than 20. *H ispanic persons may be of any race and whites and blacks may include Hispanic persons. n. a. - not applicable. Source: Special tabulations f ram the 1982 National Survey of Family Growth, Cycle III, conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics, DHHS.

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A-149 / 501 TABLE 8.4 Table 8.4 shows the percentage distribution of mothers aged 20 to 29 receiving Aid for Dependent Children (APDC) by age at first birth, race and ethnicity. Data are from the 1982 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG). Overall, 13 percent of all mothers aged 20 to 29 received AFDC; 9 percent of the white mothers, 12 percent of Hispanic mothers and 33 percent of black mothers. Mothers who were under age 20 at first birth were more likely to be receiving AFDC than those over age 20 at first birth. Forty-five percent of the mothers who were under age 15, 20 percent who were aged 15 to 17, and 21 percent who were aged 18 to 19 at the birth of their first child, compared to 14 percent who were aged 20 to 21, 3 percent who were age 22 to 24 and 2 percent who were age 25 to 29 at the birth of their first child were receiving AFDC in 1982.

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502 TABLE 8.5 Poverty* Status Of Women Aged 20-29, By Their Age At First Birth, Race, and Ethnicity**, 1982 National Survey of Family Growth Percent of Women 20-29 Receiving Any AFDC Income Age at First Number Birth Percent of Women Total Total Mothers 36 (1739) Under 15 78 (42) 15-17 50 (424) 18-19 51 (467) 20-21 37 (358) 22-24 20 (312) 25-29 9 (133) Women with no births 23 (1252) White Total Mothers 32 Under 15 15-17 18-19 20-21 22-24 25-29 Women with no births __ 45 47 34 19 7 21 (764) (2) (116) (170) (181) (204) (90) (820) Black Total Mothers 57 (942) Under 15 76 (40) 15-17 63 (304) 18-19 62 (286) 20-21 56 (172) 22-24 30 (101) 25-29 16 (37) Women with no births 34 (404) Hispanic Total Mothers 48 (113) Under 15 -- lS-17 60 (23) 18-19 S8 (21) 20-21 42 (38) 22-24 42 (24) 25-29 -- (7) Women with no births 27 (51) --Cell sizes were less than 20. *The definition of poverty is the woman's family income divided by the Census Bureau's poverty threshold, specific for family size. **Hispanic Persons may be of any race and whites and blacks may include Hispanic Persons. n.a. - not applicable. Source: Special tabulations from the 1982 National Survey of Family Growth, Cycle III, conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics, DHHS.

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A-151 / 503 TABLE 8 . 5 . . Table 8.5 shows the percent of mothers aged 20 to 29 whose incomes were 150 percent less than the poverty level by age at birth of f irst child, race and ethnicity. These data are from the 1982 National Sur- vey of Family Growth. Of all mothers aged 20 to 29, 36 percent had incomes below 150 pe scent of the pave rty level; 32 percent of the white mothers, 48 percent of the Hispanic mothers and 57 percent of the black mothers. Of the women under age 15, aged 15 to 17 and aged 18 to 19 at f irst birth, 78, 50 and 51 percent respectively had incomes below 150 percent of the poverty level compared to 37, 20 and 9 percent of women aged 20 to 21, 22 to 24 and 25 to 29 at f irst birth. Additionally, 23 percent of the women who had no births had incomes be] ow 150 percent of the poverty level; 34 percent of black women, 27 percent of the Hispanic women and 21 percent of the white women.

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