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I I . CONTRACEPTIVE USE AMONG ADOLESCENTS This section presents information on contraceptive use among U.S. adolescents. Most of the available data are on females, but data from the National Surveys of Young Women and Men (NSYW/M) on male contra- ceptive use are presented. Data from the 1982 NSFG are also presented in this section. Among limitations of the data on contraceptive use are the lack of information on males, and the lack of standardization of contraceptive categories across surveys. In the tables that follow, data on contra- ceptive use are presented for sexually active men and women by marital status, timing of use (i.e., just intercourse, most recent intercourse, currently). A-37 / 389

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A-39 / 391 TABLE 2 . ~ . Table 2.1 displays the percentage distribution of premaritally sexually active females aged 15 to 19 in 1976, 1979, and 1982 by con- traceptive-use status according to race. Data are f rom the National Surveys of Young Women (NSYW) for 1976 and 1979 and f rom the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) for 1982 ~ Overall, the proportion of premar itally sexually active females who always used a contraceptive and who used a contraceptive at some time was higher in 1979 than in 1976. In 1976, 29 percent of the sample reported that they always used a contraceptive and about 36 percent reported that they used a contraceptive at some time. In 1979, 34 percent of the premaritally sexually active females said they always used a contraceptive and about 40 said they used a contraceptive at least some of the time. White premaritally sexual active teenage females were more likely to have used a contraceptive than blacks in both 1976 and 1979. The proportion of those never using a contraceptive was somewhat lower in 1979 than in 1976 for both races. Even in 1979, though, a quarter of the young women had never used a method of birth control, about 36 per- cent of the black females and nearly a quarter of the white females. In 1976, over 40 percent of the sexually active black female teenagers and about one-third of the whites had never used a contraceptive before mar r 1age . The 1982 data include only women aged 15 to 19 who did not always use contraception. Among these women, 48.2 percent used at f irst in- tercourse, 52 .1 percent of the white women and 36.0 percent of the black women. A lower proportion of women had never used a contracep- tive method in 1982 compared to 1976, regardless of race. Only 14.6 percent of all sexually active 15- to 19-year old women had never used any method in 1982, 12 percentage points lower than in 1979.

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A-40 / 39 2 ~ O A O V Al A up H ~ O a · - · - Z a) o S ~ ~5 O ~ S £ · - A O V Ed O m ~ 0 s U) hi: 3 1 z) U) O s cr ~ o O ~ :~ O O O ~ Q ~ . - a' ~ U] · - . a) V m Ed P4 .~ o s a: Q o . - a) - 1Q o · - U] ::) A o s Ed o o . - as . - U] · - v a, s o 3 s · - o ~5 o s · - g H · - P4 o O ~: aJ S ~ CQ {Q O S~ · - V a. ~ U] p~ =) ~ H S 3 o C' V · - V) · - ~4 s · · · ~ · · · a a, r~ d. ~ C~ C~ · · · ~ d4 ~r · · ~ ~ c0 · 1 1 ~ ll~) ~ C~ ~) · · · ~ O O O O C~ ~) LC) ~ · · · ~ ao ~ ~r U~ C~ · · · ~ a) 0 ~r ~r 1 U~ a~ 1 ~ u~ ~r 1 - 1 1 O ~ O E~ ~ (~ o z o · - m "' .,, · - a) co . · ~ ~ 0 .-, U] U] · - a) Q .., a :; aJ ~r oo a, 0) Q V ~ 3 V 0 a, u: a

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A-41 / 393 TABLE 2.2 The percent of women of all ages who used a contraceptive at first intercourse by age and method is shown in Table 2.2. Data are from the 1982 National Survey of Family Growth. (NSFG) Among all women aged 15 to 44 in 1982, slightly less than one-half used a contraceptive method at first intercourse. For the older women in the sample who used a method, the most commonly used methods at first intercourse were the condom (37.6 percent), the pill (29.4 per- cent) and withdrawal (18.1 percent). Women currently aged 15 to 17 were the least likely to have used a method at first intercourse, all of them having been under 18 when they initiated coitus. Those women aged 15-19 in 1982 who used any method were most likely to have used the condom (46.6 percent), withdrawal (24.7 percent) and the pill (17.3 percent). The table show that less than half of all women used contra- ceptives at first intercourse, regardless of current age. The largest difference was between those who had first intercourse before age 18 or at age 18 or older.

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In · - to :D ~ o A: Ma a] ~ :~ H o En ~1 4~ ~ E'4 O ~ A JJ -1 4~ U) O ' - A O al P4= EN ~ ~ a) m ~ at; ~ 0 1 ED a) ~ ~ 0 A: · - 0 ~: s 01 ~: 1 U) ~ ~ 0 a C~ E~ S: a, ~ 0 ' :~ ~ o s a' ~ C: ~: · - <: p4 C X ~ U] p U] 0 :s s X E~ a cn ~ o 0 ~ o C: 0 ~ :' ~ . - · - k4 U] 4~ ·rl u' a .~! a' . U) t0 = P a 4~ ~ ~ · - L. ~ ~ a) 0 ·' ~ 0 U] · ~; a m~ ~ E~ ~ ~ ~: 0 m ~5 P4 .,, 3 ~a =0 E~ P4 ~c m ~ Q. a .,, s ~ 3 `4 4 o q;, a~ 0 ~ s U] a;~- u~ ~; ~ ~ q~ ~ 0 0 ~ ~ a ~ U) E~ CO ~ ~ . . 11 ~ CO Z U] a 0 ~n a _ ~I E a a) `; ~ 0 CL ~ a) a' I a' A-42 / 394 o ~ ~ C~ . . 11 z - C~ a' C~ · · 11 ~ ~ 01 Z ~ - - o' . . 11 o Z ~ - o .,, ~ 1 ~ 1t ~ 3 .,. ~ E. L' ~ O ~ U) ~ S ~ c; ~ a' o.- :~ tD l~ oo . ~ - 0 ~ · 11 - 1 l— Z ~ - - _ ~ ~ N O' ~) · . . ~ . kD ~) 1~) 11 c~ ~ ~ U, Z C~, _ _ _ C o ·,' 4~ ~; h4 0 ~ · - tn 1 ~ a' ~ ~ ~ 0 · - a' en a) a' u, ~,— _~ ~ ~ E. ~ ~ - ~ a) ~ ~ ° . ~ ~ ~ .,, ~: S a, ~ ~: 0 _ q~ ~ - ~ U~ 4~ ~ c~ ~n C JJ 0 ~ · - a, ~ ~n X ~ a' a s 4~ 01 Q 4 O H z H ~n ~ ~: C) C) >~ ·,' S O ~ O O ~: O ~Q ~ 0 U] ~ O tn ttS 1 Z: S S U] a S 4d ~; E. 14 o q~ ~; U) O · - ·^ 4 ~ a) C~ :, D ·~ ~ U] ~ m · - a) ~ ' u~ ~n C) .~' ·. a) ~a ~ .~. 0 U] U)

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A-43 / 395 TABLE 2.3 Table 2.3 shows the percentage distribution of sexually experienced women aged 15 to 19 and men aged 17 to 21 by the type of contraceptive method used at first intercourse and the percentage distribution for those using a method by type of method according to race and planning status of first intercourse for 1979. Data are from the National Sur- vey of Young Women (NSYW). Among women and men, those who planned first intercourse were more likely to have used contraception than those who did not plan f irst in- tercourse. Of the women who used a method at f irst intercourse, th planners were more likely than those who did not plan to use a female prescription method while male planners were more likely than those who did not plan to use a male contraceptive method. Black women were more likely than other young men and women to rely on a female prescription method .

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Type of Me thod Used at First Intercourse A-44 / 396 TABLE 2.4 Percentage Distribution Of Sexually Experienced Women Aged 15-19 By Type of Contraceptive Method Used At First Inter- course; Percentage Distr ibution Of Those Using A Method, By Type Of Method; According To Race, 1982 National Survey Of Family G rowth Pe rcent Using Total* Wh i te B. lac k A ll Respondents: (N-94 5 ~ (N=5 79 ~ (N=3 4 2 Female presc r ipt ion 8 .4 8. 0 10. 6 Female nonprescription 4.3 4.9 1. 9 Male 35.6 39.1 23.4 Condom 22.5 23.6 18. 8 Withdrawal 13 . 1 15. 5 4 . 6 None 51.8 47.9 64.0 Users only: Female prescription 17.4 15.4 29.6 Female nonpresc r ipt ion 8. 9 9 .4 S . 4 Male 73.8 75.1 65.0 Condom 46.6 45.3 52.1 Withdrawal 27.2 29. ~ 12.9 *Includes races other than white and black. Sou roe: See Table 2 .3

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A-45 / 397 TABLE 2.4 Table 2.4 shows the percentage distribution of sexually experienced women aged 15 to 19 by type of contraceptive method used at first in- tercourse and the percentage of those using a method, by type of method, according to race. Data are from the National Survey of Family Growth (NSEG). Black women aged 15 to 19 were more likely than white women to have used no method at first intercourse. Among the users, black females were more likely to have used a female prescription method and less likely to have used withdrawal than white women.

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A-46 / 398 o a; ~ sat o u o s o 5: 1 a) A: ~5 a) a, A: ·_1 ~ SO < A: a) o I z · . Us U) ~ ~ . a) o :o a: ~ ~5 ~ · - o o o ~ o at; ~ a) 0 A: V U. ~ a) .,, SO ~ :^ Cam X ~ a) U) at; Is ~ a) X ~ ~ c. a' U) c: to HI I: 0 :3 : ~ 0 ~ V] 0 ~ ~ . - . - a' :~ c: ~ ~ H ·- ,¢ U] O u) O · - S · - ~ O C: · - V ~ ~ v ~n ~: IO ~ . - · O C~ m a) U] 0 E~ 3 E~ C~ 05 11 X _ a) 0 ·~1 11 Z _ 11 O Z E-4 11 O Z; E~ — 11 Z; m— - a' ~ C~ ·~4 11 s X _ d. 11 0 :Z E' — Lf 11 0 ~ E~ — U. c o o o U) ~ ~ tD ~ u~ un ~ · · · · ~ ~ ~ ~ In 0 ~ ~ ~ 0 · · ~ 0 o oo ~r ~ u~ u~ 0 ~ 0 0 . . . ~ . . . . . .- (~~ tD ~ ~.C) C~ C~ O O ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ O ao ~ ~ ~ ~ c~ ~ ~ O · · · ~ ~ a · · ~ O ~ O O ~1 ,~ ~ ~ O , ~ o · o · · · · ~ ~ . 01 u~ 0 ~ co 0 0 c~ ~ ~ ~ o u~ (3 oo ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o · · · · · ~ · · ~ r~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Lr, ~ 0 ~ ~ ~ c~ o C~ OD ~ ~r ~ oo 0 · · · · · · · · ~ ~ u~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o o ~ ~ ~ o er · · ~ ~r oo c~ In ~ co · · . ~ v ~ - ·-l c o u] ~ ~ ~J o ~ · - o ~; - t:: · - a :, 0 ~ Q O · - 3 Q' O `:: — C; ~ O · - C U] · - ::' O ~ c; c; · - O _ ·— ~ :' · - a ~n 3 ~5 C: a) 0 ~ C: U] c: ~ ~ ~ a, O a) 0 ~ o H C.) ~ a' o~ · . ~ O O O · · ~ O o O d4 ~ ~r 0 · · · · ~ O ~ ~ ~ O ~ ~1 0 U) 3 (U Q · - o S" >1 ln .,. U] h ~n O ~n 3 ~ O · - QJ O ~ o V U] O ~ O ~4 ·,' S U] ·_1 a, U] :, ~ o ~ Q ·-l ~ U] a' u. P4 · - 3 O E~ U] ~ ~ .. 3 ~: ~ ~ O O O E~ Z; . - o ~ · - S ~ r~ 8 ° U] U] . a) U' a) 3 3 ~ V · - 8 ~ E~ ~ o . E~ u] ·e o u)

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A-4 7 / 399 TABLE 2 . 5 Table 2 .5 shows the percentage distribution of sexually experienced women aged 15 to 19 and men aged 17 to 21 who d id not use a contracted tive method at f irst intercourse by reason reported for not having used a contraceptive method, according to planning status of f irst inter- course and race. The data are from the 1979 National Survey of Young Women (NSYW) for metropolitan areas only. For both males and females regardless of whether they planned first intercourse r less than 5 percent of those not using contraception at first intercourse reported that they wanted to become pregnant or did not care if a pregnancy occurred. Among those who planned first inter- course and did not use contraception, 16.2 percent of the women and 8.5 percent of the men, thought pregnancy was impossible, and 31.2 percent of the women and 25.6 percent of the men said they did not want to use contraception. Among those who did not plan f irst intercourse, white men and women were more likely than blacks to indicate that contracep- tion was not available and more black men and women indicated that they did not know about contraception than white men and women.

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A-50 / 40 2 s o sat · - o :^ a) :D U) a) 1 ~ o .,, x ~ 0 · - ~ ~ ' o ~ u' A al ' U1 s En ~ O En En ~ U] · - O X ~ m 1 LO - o erl1 a' O O C) O · - · - V Pi :> · `4 En C) o 3 O O ·,, · - ~ ~ ~ oh of V o C) · - U] p ~Q o o o · - - Q o~ ~ ~ a a ~ e N ~ 151 t~) ~) ac) oo aQ oo oo oo :^ · - S C) ~ · - 0, h Z ~ o E~ o ~S ~ ~ V 3 O O ~ · - · - aJ ~ ~ U) a,` ° - l Ll · - ,7 ~ o E~ a: 0 ~ ~ co e e e e e C~ O ~ ~ C~ a~ ~ ~ a~ c~ a O ~ ~ e e ~ e r~ ~ ~ oo oo ~_ O ~0 ~ ~ ~ e e ~ e e CO ~ ~ ~ O O 00 0D 1 - 00 ~ ~ a) co ~ ~ 0 n ~r Q c~ ~ e, a U~ U~ ~ ~ ~ L~ o C~ er U) U~ ~r oo ~ u~ ~r oo ~ ~ o o ~ ~ 0 ~ ~ 0 ~r ~ ~ ' ~ ~ ~ o ~ ~ ~ ~ a, ~ ~ ~r 1 1 1 1 1 ' ~ U~ U) o ~ ~ ~ ~1 ~ ~ ~ O X U] V S O S O · - .,, ~ ~ aJ o V . - V . - V O ~ ~ ~; 02 0 O a ~s ~ 3 - tn o o . - U) ~ O O ~ O ~ e S ~ ~ · - .-l v ~n ·,1 ~ ~ U] a' S~ S Q4 ~ C ~ · - a e ~ 0 ~ ~ 3 u~ U] ~ s~ a' ~5 ~ ~ O a) v O · - ~ · - · - £ t 0 0\ 1 U] ~Q V o S ~n tn c; O ~ o ~n Q c; m e o ~1 ·e Q V % O ~ U) o . - ~Q 10 e~ . ~ O Q .,' a,1 V a, oo - e V . o - ~D - tn · - C) Q] iQ a'

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A-51 / 403 TABLE 2.7 Table 2.7 shows the estimated number of women aged 15 to 44 exposed to the risk of unintended pregnancy and the percentage currently prac- ticing contraception, by marital status and age. Data are from the 1982 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG). Women exposed to the risk of an unintended pregnancy includes women practicing contracep- tion and those not practicing contraception who had sexual intercourse in the last three months and were not pregnant, post partum, seeking pregnancy or non-contraceptively sterile. These data indicate that among women aged 15 to 44 exposed to the risk of an unintended pregnancy, never-married women aged 15 to 19 were the least likely to be currently using contraception, whereas there were no differences among marr fed women.

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A-52 / 404 ·e a · - ~n 4 ~; c) o cr. ~ . - <: ~ o U] V `:: o ~24 a) ~ ~ 4~ :3 o ~ o ~ .,, C) · - 3 W ~ 0 a, 4~ ~: ~ O O s O ~ ~ a' s ~n · - >1 W O ~ U] ~ s ~ O E~ O O E~ ~ ~ t) :5 r{5 ~ Q4 ~ k4 0 [Q O P. o0 ~ O s ~0 s~ U] a~ 3 0 0 · - S O s ~ a 3Q S · - W U] O ,' ~a ~ 0 ~ U] c: U] ~: ~r ~5 0 1 I ~ tQ 0 ~ ~S . - ~ :>~ l:: ~m ~ a' ~ ~ z 0 Q] ·,~ __ W ~ O Q Q i4 Z C) oo a~ u) a _ JJ CO q~ ~ · O U) C~ O ~s m~ ~ E-~ P 0 ao 1 ~ ·D ~ ~ C~ kD ~) O O 4) ~i ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ' .~ 0 a' a, ~ I JJ ~n O V ~ --l _1 u~ ~ O- a~ 1Q · · ~ ~ . · · 1 .~ oo u~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o 3 ~) u~ u~ (D ~ 1 ~ O JJ O _t ~ 1 -. ~ ~ ~ ~ iC a' a' ~r ~ 0 0 Lr} 0 ~n · · ~ ~ . . . s ~a 1 oO t~) _t ~ C~1 ~) a~ 0 J~ a u~ ~ V0 ~ ~ 1 0 ~ \9 1 ~ O ~ ~ ~ q~ Y ~ Co o a~ o kD a~ ~ ep O V ~ =, · . . · . · · . ~ h ~ ITS 1 O ~ co ao c~ O O U) /1) _ _1 11, ~ 1- ~ - ~1 0 ~ JJ, m ~ <~ ~ ~ ~ _ a~ a ~ ~ ~ ~ 0 ~ a) ~ ~ c~ ~ ~ ~ O 4~ ~ ~ 4J a) . ..... ~ . 1 ~1 ~ o:) u~ ~ rn O O ~ ~ O ·,1 0 ~ ~ ~ aJ IIS ~ ~ a, k4 ~ :z;.> 4~ 1 O ~ ~ Q. oo ~ . eQ · a~ a) o~ C~ U ~ 0 ~ ~ ~ ~ "' .~: ·- r~ ~ ~ ~ ~r ~ ~ o · ~ ~ ~ ~ 0 1 ~ O ~ o ~ oo · U) O ~ kD ~ 1 ~ O ~ a) 0 . ~1 co 1 ~ X ~ ~ 4 a \ * ~ {Q s ~ 4~ s oN co o ~ ~ oD ~ ~ ~ o 4~ ~ v) · · ~ · 1 ~1 a~ a~ 0 1— ~ O t~ O tt c~ 0 s ~ a, s N ~1 s ~ ~ 0 ~ m tt it 3—~ ' 4J t:) O ~ ~ O . - · · . . . ~ ~ . c: ~ aJ ,1 1 ~ ~ ~ ~ t— ~ ~ ~ o O ~ . - C) .c: S ~ ~ 1— La —~ —I ~ O .,~ ~ ~ L1 4~ C~ ~ ~ kD ~ ~ ~ ~ ~, ~ .- ~ ~- - · - d' C) ~ {Q O 0O dc ~ ~ O rn U~ ~ U~ ~ ~ U~ O ~ O ~ ~ ~ — O CS) · · ~ ~ . . . · 4~- - 1 ~ o 01 L0 tD 1~ O C 4-1 o ~ oo ~ ~ ~ o 0 ~ u' O Q. ~r , ~ ~ ~ ·- ~ ' U] m~ ~ ~ ~ ~er * ~ * ~ ~ S ~ ~ Q 0 ~ ~ oo ~ ~ 0 0 -. ·~ ~ a' 4 . .. ~ . U) ~ ~ ~ C 1 r~ ·- (D ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ O ::S O O Q. O o ~ oo ~n ~ ~ o a ~o o~ ~ 0 ) h 3 4~ G' O u, 0 ~ ·- ~n 1 O ~ —I CO S ' ~ ·- ~ >' S Q O ·e C) J~ · ~ ·e ~Z; ~ c · - ~n · - ~ * * C ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ' V 0 ~ rn ~ 0 ~r 0 ~ c t) a) s ~a ~ 00 . · . . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~e ~ a 1 o o ~ _' ~ u~ Lo O ~ ~ ~ ~ O Lr) ~ ~ kD ~ 1 0 O ~ C) q~ 1 ~ ·,4 Q, ~ ~ O ~ ~ 4~ ~ ~ · · - 0 Q, ~ C: S U] a 4~ z * tt ~ ~ · - 4~ ~ · ~ _ tD ~ a~ er c~ ~ co O o~— JJ O ~ ~ 4~ t— · · . . ~ . . . ~ y 0 ta u, ~a 1 ~ ~ o ~ c~ o I~ O ~ a~ . U) ~ ~ ~ C~ o ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ s ~ =- - 4 `~ - - }:; ~ ~ ~ Cx1 0 t— 00 ~1 C~1 0 ~ 3 0 V 4~ AS ~ C~ C 4~ · - 10 aJ ~ U1 _I I 1~ ~ r~) 1~ rr) ~i LO ~ O ·~1 ~ h _1 u~ ~ I_ U~ ~ _t _4 O U) ~ ~ Q ~ ~ C O -~ :5 Q~ Q, G1 ~ J~ ~ c: ~ ' ~ O ~ tJ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ · ~ ~ ~ c ~ o 8 Qi O ~ U] ~ .= ~ ·- U' ·- 3 ~1 3 0) · ~ C ~ U] ~ O ~ ~ ~ O U) p O S ·. O S ~ U) C51 N ~ ~ c; a) a) O P4 Q~ J~ 4~ k4 ~ — 0 ~ ~ ~ ~5 0) ·~ h X ~ ~ ~ ~ h ~ ~ S ~ C. ~ ~ h ~, ~ O ~ S O ' - ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ C) S ~ ~I Q, ~) h a) a, tlS ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ h ~ - - . L~ rO 4J ~1 ~, tC C ~ S ~ ~ C h C C '— O ~J (IJ ~ e - 1 p . - O J-) ~ O H Q4 H H p4 0 ~ ~ 52 ~ H ~ O U) O E~ ~ C~ ~ * U~ a ~,

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A-53 / 405 TABLE 2.8 Table 2.8 shows the number of never-married women exposed to an un- intended pregnancy and the percent who used any contraceptive method by age and race. For women using any method, the percentage distribu- tion of type of contraceptive method is presented by age and race for 1982. Among all never-married women aged 15 to 44 exposed to an uninten- ded pregnancy, 3 out of every 4 were using a method of birth control-- 77 percent of the white women and 73 percent of the black women. The pill was the most commonly used method by all exposed women. Among teenage women aged 15 to 19, 69 percent of the exposed white women and 64 percent of exposed black women used a method. Women aged 15 to 19 who were exposed to an unintended pregnancy and who were using contraception were more likely to use the pill then older women, 71 percent of black teens and 60 percent of white teens, compared to 55 and 48 percent of older women respectively.

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A-54 / 406 TABLE 2.9 Number And Percentage Distribution Of Hispanic And Non-Hispanic Women Aged 15 To 19 (All Marital Statuses) Currently Exposed To The Risk Of Unintended Pregnancy By Current Contraceptive Status, 1982 National Survey of Family Growth. Non-Hispanic Total Hispanic Black White & Other No. currently exposed 3244 290 630 2, 324 ~ in 1, 000s) Total 100 100 100 100 Using contraception 71 68 66 73 No contraception 29 32 35 27 Users Only No. 2302 197 413 1692 Total 100 100 100 100 Pill 64 63 70 63 IUD, sterilization 2 9 5 0 Condom 21 15 13 23 Diaphragm 6 5 2 7 Other 8 8 10 7 Source: A . Torres and S. . S ingh, H ispanic Adolescents and Contraception: An Analyses of Data f rom the 1982 National Survey of Family Growth Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the APHA, 1985.

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A-55 / 407 TABLE 2.9 Table 2.9 presents the estimated number and percentage distribution of Hispanic and non-Hispanic women aged 15 to 19 currently exposed to the risk of an unintended pregnancy by current contraceptive use status. These data are from the 1982 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG), and they are categorized by ethnicity, not by race. Thus, persons of Hispanic origin may be black or white, but black, white and other persons cannot be of Hispanic origin. The def inition of exposure to the risk of an unintended pregnancy is the same as that provided for Table 1. 7. Among H ispanic women aged 15 to 19 exposed to the r isk of an un- intended pregnancy, 68 percent were using some form of contraception. This proportion is slightly higher than for non-hispanic blacks and slightly lower than for non-Hispanic whites and others, but differences are very small. H ispanic women aged 15 to 19 exposed to the risk of an unintended pregnancy and using contraception were as likely as non-Hispanic whites and others to use the pill and more likely than non-Hispanic blacks and non-Hispanic whites and others to use the IUD or sterilization.

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A-57 / 409 TABLE 2.10 Table 2.10 presents the percent of never-married women aged 15 to 19 who correctly perceived the time of greatest risk of pregnancy within the menstrual cycle by age, race and sexual experience for 1971 and 1976. Data are from the National Survey of Young Women (NSYW). Overall, a slightly higher proportion of never-married women aged 15 to 19 correctly perceived the time of greatest pregnancy risk with- in the menstrual cycle in 1976 compared to 1971, 4006 compared to 37.6. In both years, sexually experienced young women were more likely than women not sexually experienced to perceive the time of greatest preg- nancy risk within the menstrual cycle. Among whites, younger teenagers were less likely than older teenagers to be aware of the time of greatest risk. White women at all ages were more likely than black women to perceive the time of greatest pregnancy risk. .,

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A-58 / 410 TABLE 2.11 Standardized Contraceptive-Use Failure Rates By User Characteristics And Method Type: Single Women, January 1, 1979 - July 1, 1982 (NSFG) Method Type No Characteristic Pill IUD Rhythm Condom Diaphragm Spermacides Other Method Intent and Age De lay Less than 18 4.5 4.4 15.9 7.8 14.2 15.5 9.1 33.5 18-19 3.1 4.9 17.5 8~7 15.7 17.1 10.1 36.5 20-24 4.5 4.3 15.7 7.7 14.0 15.2 9.0 33.0 25-29 3.4 3.2 12.0 5.8 10.7 11~7 6.8 26.0 30-44 3.9 3.8 13.9 6.8 12.4 13.S 7.9 29.8 Prevent Less than 18 11.0 10.5 33.9 18.4 31~6 34.0 21.1 62.9 18-19 9.6 9.3 30.6 16.3 28.3 30.5 18.7 58.2 20-24 7.2 6.9 23.9 12.3 21.7 23.5 14.2 47.6 25-29 5.0 4.8 17.4 8.6 15.6 17.0 10.0 36.3 30-44 1.9 1.8 7.0 3.3 6.2 6.8 3.9 15.7 Race2 Black 4.5 4.3 2.3 7.7 13.9 15.1 8.9 32.5 Other Races 4.7 4.5 20.6 8.1 14.5 15.8 9.3 33.7 Parity4 0 Live Births 3.9 3.8 14.1 6,8 12.3 13.4 7.9 29.5 1 ~ Live Births 6.6 6.3 22.4 1102 20.0 21.6 13.0 44.3 ~overt; Ratio Income Less than 100% 5.4 5.2 18.6 9.3 16.7 18.2 10.8 38.2 100-299% 4.7 4.5 16.2 8.0 14.5 15.7 9.3 33.8 300% or more 3.9 3.7 13.7 6.7 12.2 13.2 7.8 29.0 ~ tandardized by race, parity, and poverty ratio income. 2Standardized by age, contraceptive intention, poverty ratio income and parity. 3Standardized by age, contraceptive intention, race and parity. 4Standardized by age, contraceptive intention, race and poverty ratio income. Source: W.R. Grady, M.D. Hayward, J. Yagi, "Unintended Pregnancy in the United States: The Impact of Contraceptive Method and User Characteristics, n Family Planning Perspectives (18) Sept./Oct.:200-209. Reprinted by permission.

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A-59 / 411 TABLE 2.11 Table 2.11 presents standardized contraceptive-use failure rates by user characteristics and method type for characteristics and method type for single women. These data are for the period of January 1, 1979 to July 1, 1982 and are from the 1982 National Survey of Family Growth. Failure rates are the number of pregnant ies occur ing per 1,000 women using a given contraceptive method. These data ind icate substant ial d if ferences in contracept ive-use failure rates by user characteristics. Women under age 30 seeking to delay a pregnancy have lower use-failure rates than those seeking to prevent a pregnancy. Black women have higher use failure rates than women of other races. Women who had more than 3 live births had higher use failure rates than women who had fewer births. Women who had less than 100 percent of a poverty level income had higher contraceptive-use failure rates than women with higher income. Finally, women under age 18 seeking to prevent a pregnancy had the highest contraceptive-use failure rates regardless of other character istics of the women.

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