Click for next page ( 62


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 61
I I I . PREGNANCY AMONG ADOLESCENTS This section presents information on premarital and marital preg- nancy, and pregnancy resolution among adolescents. The number of adolescent pregnancies is estimated by combining data on births avail- able from the National Vital Statistics with data on abortions avail- able from the Center for Disease Control and the Alan Guttmacher Institute and with an estimated proportion of miscarriages. These data are presented in Table 3.1. Data on the number of pregnancies among sexually active women who do and do not use contraceptives by race, pregnancy intention, and other social characteristics are derived mainly from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLS), the llational Surveys of Young Women and Men (NSYW/M), and the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG). Because all three of these surveys are known to underestimate the proportion of adolescent women having abortions, they also under- estimate the proportions of adolescent pregnancies. A-61 / 413

OCR for page 61
A-62 / 414 1° ;~ ~D a' o, ~r o~ r~ ~r o~ 1 o C~ 1 U~ o~ . :~ .. o o .,, s m .,' 4~ 3 o - E~ 0 ~r 0 ~ ~ c~ 0 ~r ~ ~ ~ 0 O ~ ~ O ~ O OD ~ ~ oD a~ un u~ ~ e, ~ 00 ~ U. ~ ~ O U~ C~ ~ O O 00 0 L9 ~ O 0 ~ a) ~ ~ 0 0 ~ r. ~ ~ 0 a~ a~ oo er ~ ~ ~ ~ kD rn ~ 0 ~ O 0 a~ 0 ~ ao 0 ~ cn ~ 0 O ~ ~ O O U~ ~ ~ C~ t— ~ C`l U~ ~ ~ O O ~ O ~ CS' O O ~ ~ tD ~ O ° O er O u~ 0 N ~ O ~ O ~) ~ 00 C~ O 0 0 ao ~ u~ 0 0 oo 0 ~r ~ 0 O ~ 01 ~ ~ O a~ ~ ~ ~ a~ a U~ ~ 0D ~ ~ 00 0 c~ a:~ oo oo O ~ ~ ~ 0D O ~ U~ kD ~ O O a, U~ C~ L~ er In ~ ~ ~ a, a, 0 0 O 0O 0\ · ~ ~ ~ ~ o o~ L9 o o ~ ~ oi · ~ ~ c~ ~r 0 cn ~r c~ o ~ ~ o o ~ ~ ~ 0 a ~ · ~ ~ ~ o ~ o ~ c~ o ~ ~ ~r 0 cn c~ 0 c3 co rn · ~ ~ o ~ o oN ao ~r 0 o o ~ · ~ ~ o ~ o ~o o o ~ ~ o o ~ ~ ~ o cD ~ · ~ ~ N o ~r ~ D a' ~r ~ o ~ oo ~ ~ ~ o o ' ~ oo ~ oo u~ c~ o ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o ~ oo ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ . ~ ~ ~ o o r~ cn ~ ~o ~ ~ ~ a, er o Lf, kD ~ ~ O un ~ · ~ · ' - o o o o ~ o ~ c~ a, ~ ~ ao O ~ O O ~ r~ · · . . · · ~ o o o o o o o ao a, a, r" 0 LO tD 0 0 rn · · · · ~ o o o o o OD a, o~ ~ ~ ~ ~ u, L~ u~ C~ \0 ~ ~ a o c~ o ~ o o ~ ~ ~ · · · · . . · · ~ o o o o o o o o o C~ C~; ~ ~ ~ ~ OD ~ tD ~ ~ un ~ ~ a' O ~ O ~ O O ~I C~ N · · . · . . . · ~ O O O O O O O O O 0 a:~ u~ 0 ~ 0 oo ~ 0 ~ ~ a: co ~ co ~ ~ o~ ,~ u~ rn 0 0 co ~ rn 0 co a~ Lf~ 1— O l— CD tD ~ O O ~ CD a~ 0 t~ ~ a~ ~ 0 co 0 c~ ~ ~ ~ 0 ~ 0 ~ 0 0 0 0 0 s. ~ ~ ~ ~ . ~ . ~ ~ ~ . . . . . . . . ~ ~ ~ e' ~ r~ 0 ~ 0 c~ u~ ~ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 <~ kD ~ o0 ~n ~ ~ 0 a~ a' ~ ~ ~ U) 4 a V ~ ~ m :^ ~ ~ ~ tn + rrJ . r~ dJJ 3 ~ lC . - U) 0D ~ ~0 ~ X ~ 3 V ~ - - ~ ~ a, ~ ~ ~ x ~ 0 x ~ ~ cn ~ a) ~ · - u~ 1 ~ ~ _' a) x O) ~ ·~ ~1 ·~1 ~ 3 ~ ~S GS ~ 4~ ~ ~ 6) ~ t) (IJ ~ 0) O ~ u~ a~ u~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Q ·— ~: ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ V ~ V ~ ~ ~ V V ~ ~ V ~ ~ ~ 1 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~, ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ `~W i4 u~ ~n ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ x · - · - ~ '— C) ~ ~ ~ ' - ' - ·— ~ ~ V ~ ·— ~ ~ ·— ~ ~ ·— ~ ~ ~ O ~ c; ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ C ~ ~ ~ ~ O O .~ O O O U] · - ~l ~ (L) ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ a~ · - ~ · - · - · - S J~ `15 t; ~1 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ S £ ~' ~ ~ ~ · - X ~ X ~ ~ ~ ~ X ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ X ~ ~ ~ Ll O U] a~ J~ z J~ u: ~ ~ ~ J~ a) a) p:1 Ll ~ ~ O O Er;l O O O O ' - Q ·^ 54 0 0 0 0 0 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~2 Q R ~ .Q £ P~ E~ dP ~ dP ~ E~ ~ P4 ~ ~1 ~ ~ ~ ~

OCR for page 61
A-63 / 415 0 a, N 0O a' ao O CO a, cn CO a~ a, O ~ ~ ~ 0:) ~) N '= a, O1 . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ CD ~ 00 ~ ~ ~ tD ~r ~ ~ 0 r~ co ~ ·n ~ ~ In l— 1— ~0 _I 0 ~ ao 0D ~ ~ ~ ~ tD un ~r ~ 0 O O ~ O 0\ ~ e O O a, O O O ~ O 01 ~ 0 N O ·~ O0 ~ ~ O ~ ~ O U~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ,_d oo ~ ~ u~ 0 ~ ~ ~) ~ ln a) 0 (~ u, 0 L9 ~ 0 co 0 a' Ln er ln ~ ~ ~ ~ 0 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ · ~ · ~ ~ ~ · · · ~ o' ~ ~ ~ a' 0 0 0 ~ a) 0 0 0 0 0 tD L9 0 cO O ~ ~ O O tD ~ ~ ~ O ~ ~ ~ ~D ' 00 O ~ U~ ~ ~ o _I . · · ~ O O O O o O ~ er ~r ~D ~ O U~ rn a' CO O O ~) ~r O O CD U~ O ~ C~ ~ O0 ~0 ~r a, ~ N er ~ O ~ O tD tD 00 ~ U~ \0 ~ ~ ~ ~r rn ~r a o o · ~ o o o c~ co ~ ~ o · · ~ o o o a' ~ ~r ~ ~ ;~ · · ~ o o o ~ ~ ~ ~ a, d' ~ ~ ~ O o o ~ ~r Co · ~ · · ~ o o o o o 0 a, ~ un ~r a~ oo ~r ~ o o ~ ~ ~ · · · · · ~ ~ o o o o o o co c~ o ~ ~ o o o o Co o oD o ~ c~ cN ~ c~ I~ t ~ a~ ~ ~ ~ 0 c~ ~ a~ r~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~r o~ ~ ~ ~ N ~ t+) OD Lt ) O O, u~ ~ ~ ~ i_ ~1 ~ O _I O O ~) ~ 00 ,, ~ ~ ~ ~ , ~ , ~ ~ ~ . · . · · . · · OD a, ~ 0 ~ 0 L~ ~0 ~ O O O O o 0 o 0 0 c~ ~ ~ 0 oo r~ a, 0 0 u~ ~ ~ ~ 0 C~ ao oo ~ 0 a, ~ ~r a~ ~ 0 0 ~ 0 ~ ~ 0 ~ a~ U? ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~r kD \~0 ~ ~ ~o oo ~ In 0 ~ o~ 0 ~ 0 er ~ ep U~ ~ ~r a~ co ~ 0 c~ ~ ~ ~ a' 0 a, 0 ~ a: a' ~ ~ ~ 0 ~ 0 0 ~ ~r oo ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ . ~ . ~ ~ ~ . · . . . . . · . c~ ~r er ~ ~ ° ~ ° c~ rn ~D O O O O O o o o o ID ~ ~ co u~ oo ~ 0 U~ a, 0 c~ 0 ~ L9 0 co ~ 0 ~ ~ 0 a~ ~ c~ ~ t— t— ~ 0 ~— 0 lt1 ~ 0 - 1 ~ C~ N ~S) cn 0 ~ U~, - d' 0` OD ~ O 0 ~ ~ ~ ~ 0 cn a~ m) a~ _1 0 _t C~l O ~1 0 0 ~) ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ' · ~ · ~ ' ~ · ~ · · ~ · · · . ~ C~ ~ ~ C:) ~ O O O ~ _' ~ O O O O O O O O O a, ~ ~ ln ~ 0 ~ ~, ~ ~J u, ~r ~ ~ ~ kD ~ CO 0 a' ~ er O l— O O ~— O a~ N O U-) ~ t~) u~ ~ O O ~ kD lD ~1 O O ~ ~ ~ O ~ O CO kD ~ kD O ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 1— 0 ~r ~ ~ ~ 0 o, ~ ~ 0 ~ ~ ~ ~ 0 ~ 0 0 ~ ~ r~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ . ~ . ~ ~ ~ . · . . . . · · ~ ao 0 C~1 CO 0 ~1 0 1— U) N O O O O O O O O O _~ In _I ID 0 co IJ u~ ~r ~ ~ u~ ~ kD 00 ~ ' ' ' ' ' O 01 0 ~r 0 ~ co 0 ~ ~ 0 a, ~ cn u~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 0 co u~ a~ 0 ~ ~ a, ~ 0 ~ 0 ~ ~ a~ ~ 0 ~ ~ c~ ~ a, Lr) ~ 0 O ~ \0 ~ ~ 0 ~ ~ ~ 0 0 ~ ~ c~ 0 ~ O O ~ ~ r~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ . ~ · ~ ~ ~ · · ~ · · . · · ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ u, 0 ~ 0 a~ 0 ~ 0 0 0 0 0 o 0 0 0 N 151 0\ 1D 0 CO \0 t— Ln ~ —1 _I LD kD ~ ~ ~ rn ~ 0 ~ ~ ~r U] S 4~ h · - ~ ·- ~ ~ cn m a) + · - U] G) Q5 ~ Q X ~ 3 ~ C X ~ ~ X C O ~i ~ ~I X ·-l Ed U] lt ~) ~ · - (R 1 ~:5 ~ —I ~ ~ 3 ~ C ~ S u~ a) ~ ~ ~q ·~ :^ a~ ~ x · - ·~4 L :~ ~5 Io ~ ~ 4~ ~ ~ a) ~ a) ~ ~ ~ 0 s~ v~ ~ u~ ~~ x ~ a) a) ~; - 1 ~ as G; u~ a~ J~ ~ Q ·— ,~; ~1 aJ U) C s~ 1 C5, a, a) ~ a) tq c ~ c ~ :3 c; a1 ~ ~ ~ ~ c ~,l U~ U) ~ ·— ~ ~ ~ ~ C ~ ~ X · - ~ ~ · - ~ O ~ ~ · - · - · - ~ ~ ~ ~ · - ~ ~ . - ~ ~ · - ~ ~ ~ Ll `: ~ ~ :Z ~ ~ U) k4 ~ UO C {: ~ ~ ~ ~ O 0 54 0 0 0 u' · - ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ a) · - · - a) · - · - · - —~ S 4~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Q ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ S Q ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ · - ~ ~ X ~ ~ ~ U, X ~ ~ X ~ ~ X ~ ~ ~ 4~ ~l O ~O ~ ~ Z; ~ U) Ed ~ ~ ~ 4~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ L O O ~ O O O O ·— Q ·— ~ O O O O O ~ ~ · - ·— Q eQ aQ Q Q E" m <: ~: ~ E~ dP ~ dP E~ , ~ ~ a, s 4 . C o .,4 a) ~ O Q ~R o 4 a) ~o . C~ ~Q 3 S .,' S N CO C .,' U) 4~ U) o ·,4 o ~U o a' a s:: o ,' o Q o a o S 4 c .,' JJ ~a h a) :5 O 4 N .,. C 0o a, U) .,' S .,! S 3 _ ~n C O ~ · - Q, L. O 4~ O ~5 U) ~i Q O U] · - 3 ~5 t0 ·,' 4J ~n

OCR for page 61

OCR for page 61
A-65 / 417 TABLE 3.1 Table 3.1 is a summary table of reproductive behavior of U.S. women aged 15 to 19 from 1960 to 1984. The sources of these data are out- lined in detail at the end of the table. These are the most reliable national statistics available on pregnancies, births, abortions and miscarriages for adolescent women. The pregnancy rate for women aged 15 to 19 declined between 1960 and 1965 but then rose steadily from 87 pregnancies per 1,000 women to 112 per 1,000 women in 1982. Recent data indicate a decline in the pregnancy rate to 109 per 1,000 women in 1984. The pregnancy rate cal- culated just for sexually experienced women, however, declined through the 1960s, 1970s and early 1980s from an estimated 458 pregnancies per 1,000 sexually active women to 233 pregnancies per 1,000 sexually ac- tive women. One result of this trend was a decrease in the number of births per 1,000 women aged 15 to 19 through the 1960s from 88 births per 1,000 women in 1960 to 51 births per 1,000 women in 1984. How- ever, the decline in the birth rates for women aged 15 to 19 is also due to the increase in the abortion rate. The abortion rate for women aged 15 to 19 increased from an estimated 44 per 1,000 sexually active lS-to-l9 year old women in 1960 to 93 per 1,000 sexually active women aged 15 to l9 in 1984.

OCR for page 61
A-66 / 418 TABLE 3.2 Pregnancies, Abortions, Miscarriages And Live Births By Marital Status To Women Aged 15 To 19, 1982 Category Number Percent Total pregnancies to teens 15-19 1,077,124 100.0 Abortions 418, 740 39.6 Miscarriages 144,626 13.4 Live births 513,758 47.0 Conceived post-maritally 145, 907 13.4 Conce ived premar itally, born post-maritally 118, 678 10.9 Born premaritally 249,173 22. 8 Source: See Table 4.1 for Source of Pregnancy, Abortion, Miscarriage and Live Birth Figures; O'Connell and Rogers 1984, der ived f rom the 1982 Current Population Survey.

OCR for page 61
A-67 / 419 TABLE 3.2 Table 3.2 presents estimates of the total number of pregnancies, abortions, miscarriages, and live births by marital status to women aged 15 to 19 in 1982. Of more than a million pregnancies to women aged 15 to 19 in 1982, less than half, 47 percent, are estimated to have resulted in live births; 39.6 percent ended in abortion; and about 13.4 percent were miscarriages. Thus, for every 10 adolescent pregnancies there were approximately 4 abortions, 1 miscarriage, and 5 births. Of all pregnancies resulting in live births to women aged 15 to 19, 13.4 percent were conceived post-maritally, 10.9 percent were conceived premaritally and born post-maritally, and 22.8 percent were born premaritally.

OCR for page 61
A-68 / 420 TABLE 3.3 Proportion Of Women Ever-Pregnant Before Age 18 and Age 20, 1976 And 1981 Percentage Experiencing a First Pregnancy by Age Year and Race 18 20 1976 Total 23.7 41.1 19 81 Total 23.9 43.5 White 20.5 39.7 Black 40. 7 63.1 Source: Calculated by Jacqueline Darroch Forrest, 1986; see Table 3.1 f or sou rce of data .

OCR for page 61
A-69 / 421 TABLE 3.3 Table 3.3 presents the proportion of all women ever experiencing a first pregnancy by age 18 and by age 20. In 1976, 23.7 percent of all women had a first pregnancy by age 18, 41.1 percent by age 20. In 1981, the proportions were slightly higher, 23.9 percent of the women experienced a first pregnancy by age 18, 43.5 percent by age 20. In 1981 a higher proportion of black women than white women had a first pregnancy by age 18, 40.7 compared to 20.5 percent and by age 20, 63.1 percent compared to 39.7 percent, respectively.

OCR for page 61
A-70 / 42 2 TABLE 3 .4 Percentage of Premar itally Sexually Act ive Women Aged 15-19 Who Ever Experienced A Premarital First Pregnancy, By Contraceptive-Use Status* And Race, 1979 And 1976, Metropolitan U.S. . .. . 1979 1976 Contraceptive-Use Status Total White Black Total White Black Always treed 96 13.5 13.7 12.4 9.9 10.0 9.5 (N) t307) (165) (142) (203) (98) (105) U sed at 1st I nte rcou r se, bu t not A lways (N) 31.0 26.2 59.5 39.7 ( 119) (73) (46) (66) 34.3 57.6 (36) (30) Did not use at 1st Inte rcou r se, but at Some T ime % 29. 2 25 ~ 0 45 ~ 2 21 ~ 7 22 ~ 2 19 e 7 (N) (241) (137) (104) (171) (95) (76) Never used % 62 .2 58. 8 70.3 49. 5 41. 5 65. 2 (N) ( 270 ) ( 103 ) ( 167) ( 283 ) ( 120 ) ( 163 ) *From first intercourse to first pregnancy or marriage, an interview. Source: M. Zelnik and J. F. Kantner, 1980, asexual Activity, Contraceptive Use, and Pregnancy Among Metropolitan-Area Teenagers 1971-1979," Family Planning Perspectives 12(5), (September/October), 1980. Reprinted by permission.

OCR for page 61
A-71 / 423 TABLE 3.4 Table 3.4 presents the percentage of premaritally sexually active women aged 15 to 19 who reported that they experienced a nonmarital first pregnancy, by contraceptive use status and race for 1979. The data are from the National Survey of Young Women {NSYW) for metro- politan areas only. As noted earlier, underreporting is a concern in surveys addressing sensitive topics such as nonmarital pregnancy. Among sexually active women aged 15 to 19 who reported that they always used some form of contraception, 13.5 percent ever had a pre- marital pregnancy in 1979. Of women who said they used a contracep- tive method at first intercourse but not consistently, 31 percent had a premarital pregnancy. Women who were premaritally sexually active and had never used contraception were the most likely to have ever experienced a premarital pregnancy, 62.2 percent in 1979. White women aged 15 to 19 were less likely than black women to have ever experienced a premarital pregnancy, except among those who always used contraception, where whites were slightly more likely than blacks to have ever had a premarital pregnancy.

OCR for page 61
A-72 / 424 a, ' .,, a ~ to P4 U2 s .,.} ~ V) U) 1 a) · - V In ~ o ~5 1 · - o o Hi; a) U] o H In ·^ V a) V . - . - C) o . - · - In V In · P4 Is A EN ~ U2 U1 0 a) 3 o · - In ~ ~ o E~ U ~ o u) ~ ·^ v] ~ a' 0 E~ U ~ u) u) ~ a, ~rl ~4 a a, ~ x ·rl o E~ y t) .rl :~ o E~ y o E~ ~n o s" v a u] ) o · - £ P4 C~ o o er ~ ~ o oo a) ao vo U~ D ~ c~ ~ ~ ~ dP 0 ~ ~n ~r 0 c~ ~ ~ ~ un d~ ~r ~ ~ c~ ~ ~ ~ ~ c~ ~ ~ N ~ ~ et ~ tD ~I N ~1 ~) oo ~r M0 ~ ~ CN ·rl o o a) 1 ·— U] ~ U~ .,' _ ~ U] · - f\S a) ~ U2 a, O ~ ~n c: .,l · - ~; E~ : ~ ,.~ · - · - _ : · <~ · - O P~ ~ ·. o · - u) u] a' Q ·a tn ~s ~ a) V ~ · - U)

OCR for page 61
A-73 / 425 TABLE 3.5 The estimated cumulative percent of metropolitan-area females aged 15 to 19 with a premarital first pregnancy by duration since first intercourse, race and contraceptive use status in 1979 is presented in Table 3.5. Within 24 months after first intercourse, 36 percent, or more than 1 out of every 3 premaritally sexually active teenagers, became preg- nant. The difference between those who always used some method of con- traception and those who had never used contraception was substantial. Within the first 3 months after intercourse, 20 percent of the teen- agers who never used contraception became pregnant compared to only 4 percent of those who had always used contraception. By 24 months after first intercourse, half of the teenagers who had never used contracep- tion had become pregnant while 12 percent of the teenagers who reported that they had always used a contraceptive method had become pregnant.

OCR for page 61
A-74 / 426 ,0 · - e-1 ~ ~ o a) U] : m ' ~ ~ ~ · - · - a ~ ~ ~ 0 ~ a [Q ~ X P: ~ .~ ~ 0 ~ m 0 V _ Us Pi ~ ~ a' a' ~ ED ~ Ed ~ $¢ 0} S h c~ 1 ~ ED ~ c: O ~ ~ ~ ·- E~ ~ O 0= 0 ~ Z O U] O ~ · - i a a: _ :D ~ ~ s .~l U) U] ·— ~ O a ~s~ E~ `: ~ ~ Q ~ a V \9 ~ ~ . ~ O ' U] ~ ~; m ~ ~ ~:~ - ~ 0 E~ ~ H E~ _ _ 0 ~ ~r ~ ~ ~ 0 · · ~ ~ · ll ~r ~ 11 a' ~ 0 C~ ~ Z; ~ O m _ _ ,, _ _ a, c~ ~ ~ ~ ~ L9 0 ~ e' ~ ·,' 11 ~ (D 11 ~ O O s ~ ~ ~ Z ~ O ~ _ _ _I _ a' ~ ~ 0 C~ · 11 ' er u~ 11 CD ~ O 0 ~ ~ ~ Z ~ 0 E~ _ _ _l _ _ 0 0 0 ~ U~ O · · ~ · · I1 ~ ~ 0 z ~ ~ z ~ ~ 0 _ _ ,1 - - ~ a, ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 0 dJ ~ ~ a ~ · · a · - i 11 ~I CO 11 I~ N O C~ l— Z C~ 1 - 0 _ _ ~ _ _ O ~ O ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ O 615 ~ · \ · ~ ~ a 11 ~ In 11 0 ~ O O ~ C~ ~ ~ ~ ~ O E~ _ _ , - _ _ a~ ~ ~ u~ 0 0 0 V to 11 0 ~ 11 C~ ~ O Z C~ ~ Z ~ ~ O a: _ _ _1 a' ·rl o E~ a' ~g p ~5 a, ~ ·~' V O · - S" ~ O H t) :^ U~ - CN - 1~ - U' _ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ O r~l · · ~ a a a 11 kD ~) 11 ~ ~) ° :Z ~ a' ~ ~ ~ 0 _ _ _ _ ~D O O ~ ~ ~ O · · CN · ~ a 11 ~ ~ 11 —I ~ O Z ~ Co ~ ~ ~ O _ _ I~ ~: V O `: · - ~, a' H 0) 3 :> JJ s: O 3 O · - o . - V U) 3 O ~ O U) · - O E~ · - · 3 r .,~ e · - :' X U] O : aJ £ · - :~; U) · - O 0 ~:5 ·e O U) tQ tQ ~ ~ ·,1 · - Q U ~ ~ · - O ~1 ·_1 o . - U] ~Q · - s~ · - p; 1 ·e tn · E~ 1 _ ~ n · - 0 0 ~ ~ 0 0 ~ LJ ~ 0' Q £ O ,<: — a o 0 0h ~D a Q

OCR for page 61
A-75 / 427 TABLE 3.6 Table 3.6 shows the distribution of women aged 15 to 19 by race, in 1979, 1976, and 1971 who ever experienced a nonmarital pregnancy and were unmarried when the pregnancy was resolved, by pregnancy in- tention, and, among those who did not intend the pregnancy, by contra- ceptive use at the time of conception. Data are from the National Surveys of Young Women (NSYW) for metropolitan areas only. Again it is important to remember that under-reporting of pregnancies occurs in all surveys, and this could affect conclusions drawn from the data. The data indicate that the percent of premarital pregnancies that were not intended in 1979 was slightly higher than in 1971--82 percent in 1979 compared to 76 percent in 1971. Black teenagers were slightly less likely than whites to describe their pregnancy as unwanted in 1971, 1976, and 1979. Among teenagers who had an unintended premarital pregnancy the per cent were using contraceptives were more than three times higher in 1979 than in 1971, 32 compared to 9 percent. Even so, black females who had an unintended premar ital pregnancy were less likely to have used contraception than white females, especially in 1976 and 1979. Moreover, the great ma jor ity of unwanted premar ital pregnancies in all years and in both race groups occurred to teens who were not using contracept ion. -

OCR for page 61