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- Devour ret .~. Adolescent Sexuality Pregnangy, and Childbearing STATISTICAL APPENDIXES Sandra L. Hofferth and Cheryl D. Hayes, Editors Panel on Adolescent Pregnancy and Childbearing Committee on Child Development Research and Public Policy Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1987

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National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this publication was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and of advising the federal government. The Council operates in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy under the authority of its congressional charter of 1863, which established the Academy as a private, nonprofit, self-governing membership corporation. The Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in the conduct of their services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. It is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Engineering and the Institute of Medicine were established in 1964 and 1970, respectively, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences. This project was sponsored by the Ford Foundation, the Rockefeller Foundation, the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, and the Charles Stewart Mott Foundation. The interpretations and conclusions contained in this publication represent the views of the panel and not necessarily those of the sponsoring foundations, their trustees, or officers. Printed in the United States of America

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Panel on Adolescent Pregnancy and Childbearing DANIEL D. FEDERMAN (Chair), Harvard Medical School WENDY H. BALDWIN, Center for Population Research, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development EZRA C. DAVIDSON, JR., Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Charles R. Drew Postgraduate Medical School JOY G. DRYFOOS, Hastings-on-Hudson, New York JACQUELINE D. FORREST, Alan Guttmacher Institute, New York FRANK F. FURSTENBERG, JR., Department of Sociology, University of Pennsylvania BEATRIX A. HAMBURG, Mt. Sinai School of Medicine, City University of New York RICHARD JESSOR, Institute of Behavioral Science, University of Colorado JUDITH E. JONES, Center for Population and Family Health, Columbia University FRANK LEVY, School of Public Affairs, University of Maryland ROBERT H. MNOOKIN, Stanford Law School KRISTIN A. MOORE, Child Trends, Inc., Washington, D.C. ROSS D. PARKE, Department of Psychology, University of Illinois HAROLD A. RICHMAN, Chapin Hall Center for Children, National Opinion Research Center, University of Chicago MARIS VINOVSKIS, Department of History, University of Michigan CHERYL D. HAYES, Study Director SANDRA L. HOFFERTH, Adviser MARGARET E. ENSMINGER, Consultant DEE ANN L. WENK, Statistical Consultant CELIA SHAPIRO, Staff Assistant . . .

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Committee on Child Development Research and Public Policy tar WILLIAM A. MORRILL (Chair), Mathtech, Inc., Princeton WILLIAM KESSEN (Vice Chair), Department of Psychology, Yale University EUGENE S. BARDACH, School of Public Policy, University of California, Berkeley DONALD T. CAMPBELL, Department of Social Relations, Lehigh University DAVID L. CHAMBERS, School of Law, University of Michigan FELTON EARLS, School of Medicine, Washington University, St. Louis DORIS R. ENTWISLE, Department of Social Relations, lohns Hopkins University FRANK F. FU~5iThNbb~C5, Jet., Department ot sociology, university of Pennsylvania HERBERT GINSBURG, Department of Human Development, Columbia University SHEILA B. KAMERMAN, School of Social Work, Columbia University LUIS M. LAOSA, Educational Testing Service, Princeton, N.~. SAMUEL J. MESSICK, Educational Testing Service, Princeton, N.~. JOHN MODELL, Department of History and Philosophy, Carnegie-Mellon University T.M. JIM PARHAM, School of Social Work, University of Georgia MICHAEL L. RUTTER, Institute of Psychiatry, University of London EUGENE SMOLENSKY, Department of Economics, University of Wisconsin BARBARA STARFIELD, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University CAROL K. WHALEN, School of Social Ecology, University of California, Irvine DANIEL D. FEDERMAN (ex officio), Chair, Pane! on Adolescent Pregnancy and Childbearing lo

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Contents FOREWORD . vii PREFACE ........................................... Adolescent Pregnancy anc1 (~hilelhenrin~ An F.mer~in~ R~POrCh Focus Cheryl D. Hayes X1 Influences on Early Sexual and Fertility Behavior 1 Factors Affecting Initiation of Sexual Intercourse Sandra L. Ho~erth , 2 Adolescent Sexual Behavior As It Relates to Other Transition Behaviors in Youth Margaret E. Ensminger 36 3 Contraceptive Decision-Making Among Adolescents Sandra L. Ho~erth 56 4 Teenage Pregnancy and Its Resolution Sandra L. Hofferth 78 Consequences of Early Sexual and Fertility Behavior 5 The Health and Medical Consequences of Adolescent Sexuality and Pregnancy: A Review of the Literature Donna M. Strobino 93 6 Social and Economic Consequences of Teenage Childbearing Sandra L. HoJerth . ................ 123 7 Teenage Fatherhood Ross D. Parke and Brian Neville 8 The Children of Teen Childbearers Sandra L. Hofferth Programs anti Policies 145 ....... 174 9 The Effects of Programs and Policies on Adolescent Pregnancy and Childbearing Sandra L. Ho~erth 207 v

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. vi 10 Estimates of Public Costs for Teenage Childbearing: A Review of Recent Studies and Estimates of 1985 Public Costs Martha R. Burt with Frank Levy ................ REFERENCES STATISTICAL APPENDIX Trends in Adolescent Sexual and Fertility Behavior Kristin A. Moore, DeeAnn Wenk Sandra L. Hofferth, and Cheryl D. Hayes, editors ....... .... 264 ....295 ..... A1/353