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References Alessi, G. 1980 Behavioral observation for the school psychologist: responsive-discrepancy model. School Psychology Review 9:31-45. Alessi, G., and Leys, W. 1981 A Responsive-Discrepancy Consultation Model for Managing Referrals for School Psychological Services. Unpublished paper. Department of Psychology, Western Michigan University. Algozzine, R., Whorton, J. E., and Reed, W. R. 1979 Special class exit criteria: a modest beginning. Journal of Special Education 13: 131-136. Aloia, G. F., Beaver, R. J., and Pettus, W. F. 1978 Increasing initial interactions among integrated EMR students and their nonre- tarded peers in a game-playing situation. American Journal of Mental Deficiency 82:573-579. Alper, T. G. 1978 IEP's: How Well Do They Work? Paper prepared under grant no. 77-37-B for the California State Department of Education. Amira, S., Abramowitz, S. I., and Gomes-Schwartz, B. 1977 Socially-charged pupil and psychologist effects on psychoeducational decisions. Journal of Special Education 11:433-440. Anastasi, A. 1976 Psychological Testing. 4th ed. New York: Macmillan. Arter, J. A., and Jenkins, J. R. 1979 Differential diagnosis-prescriptive teaching: a critical appraisal. Review of Edu- cational Research 49:517-555. Ashurst, D., and Meyers, C. E. 1973 Social system and clinical models in school identification of the educable mentally retarded. Pp. 150-163 in R. K. Eyman, C. E. Meyers, and G. Tarjan, eds., Socio- behavioral Studies in Mental Retardation. Washington, D.C.: American Associa- tion on Mental Deficiency. 118

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References Association of State Directors of Special Education 1980 Summary of Research Findings in IEP's. Washington, D.C. Directors of Special Education. Baker, E. H., and Tyne, T. F. 1980 The use of observational procedures in school psychological services. School Psy- chology Monograph 4(1 ): 25-44. Ballard, M., Gottlieb, J., Corman, L., and Kaufman, M. J. 1977 Improving the status of mainstreamed retarded children. Journal of Educational Psychology 69:607-611. Bateman, B. 1979 Teaching reading to learning disabled and other hard-to-teach children. Pp. 227- 259 in L. Resnick and P. Weaver, eds., Theory and Practice of Early Reading. Vol. 1. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Belmont, J., Butterfield, E. C., and Ferretti, R. P. In To secure transfer of training, instruct self-management skills. In D. K. Detter press man and R. J. Sternberg, eds., How and How Much Can Intelligence Be In- creased ? Norwood, N.J.: Ablex. Bennett, A. 1932 A Comparative Study of Subnormal Children in the Elementary Grades. New York: Teachers College, Columbia University. Benton, A. L. 1974 Clinical neuropsychology of childhood: an overview. Pp. 47-52 in R. M. Reitan and L. A. Davison, eds., Clinical Neuropsychology: Current Status and Applications. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Berk, R. A., Bridges, W. P., and Shih, A. 1981 Does IQ really matter? A study on the use of IQ scores for the tracking of the men- tally retarded. American Sociological Review 46:58-71. Bersoff, D. N. 1979 Regarding psychologists testily: regulation of psychological assessment in the public schools. Maryland Law Review 39(1):27-120. In Larry P. and PASE: judicial report cards on the validity of individual intelligence press tests. In T. Kratochwill, ea., Advances in School Psychology. Vol. II. Birch, H., Richardson, S., Baird, D., Borobin, G., and Illsley, R. 1970 Mental Subnormality in the Community: A Clinical and Epidemiologic Study. Baltimore, Md.: Williams and Wilkins. Birman, B. F. 1979 Case Studies of Overlap Between Title I and P.L. 94-142 Services for Ha'~dicapped Students. Research report EPRC 26 prepared for the U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. Menlo Park, Calif.: SRI International. Bishop, Y. M. M., Fienberg, S. E., and Holland, P. W. 119 : Association of State 1975 Discrete Multivariate Analysis: Theory and Practice. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. Blaschke, C. L. 1979 Case Study of the Impact of Implementation of P.L. 94-142. Executive summary. Washington, D.C.: Education Turnkey Systems. Blatt, B. 1958 The physical, personality, and academic status of children who are mentally retarded attending special classes as compared with children who are mentally re- tarded attending regular classes. American Journal of Mental Deficie'?cy 62: 810-818.

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120 REPORT OF THE PANEL Boll, T. J. 1974 Behavioral correlates of cerebral damage in children aged 9 through 14. Pp. 91-120 in R. M. Reitan and L. A. Davison, eds., Clinical Neuropsychology: Current Status and Applications. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Bondy, A. S., and Erickson, M. T. 1976 Comparison of modeling and reinforcement procedures in increasing question- asking of mentally retarded children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 9:108. Bradfield, R. H., Brown, J., Kaplan, P., Rickert, E., and Stannard, R. 1973 The special child in the regular classroom. Exceptional Childre'' 39:384-390. Broman, S. H., Nichols, P. L., and Kennedy, W. A. 1975 Preschool IQ Prenatal and Early Developmental Correlates. Hillsdale, N.J.: Law- rence Erlbaum Associates. Brookover, W. B., and Lezotte, L. W. 1979 Changes in School Characteristics Coincide''t with Changes i!? Student Achieve- ment. East Lansing: College of Urban Development, Michigan State University. ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 181 005. Brown v. Board of Educatio'2 1954 347 U.S. 483. Brown, A. L. 1978 Knowing when, where, and how to remember: a problem of metacognition. Pp. 77- 165 in R. Glaser' ea., Advances it I'~structio''al Psychology. Vol. 1. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Brown, A. L., and Barclay, C. R. 1976 The effects of training specific mnemonics on the metamnemonic efficiency of retarded children. Child Develop',2e'7t 47: 70-80. Budoff, M. 1968 Learning potential as a supplementary assessment procedure. Pp. 293-343 in J. Hellmuth, ea., Learning Disorders. Vol. 3. Seattle, Wash.: Special Child Publica- tions. Butterfield, E. C., Wambold, C.. and Belmont, J. M. 1973 On the theory and practice of improving short-term memory. A,,2erica,' Journal `~1 Me'2 tat Def icie'7cy 77: 654-~9. Calfee, R., and Brown, R. 1979 Grouping students for instruction. Pp. 144-181 in D. L. Duke, ea., Classrt~o''' Ma~?ageme,~t. The Seventy-Eighth Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education. Chicago, III.: University of Chicago Press. Carnine, D., Zoref, L., and Cronin, D. 1981 A Study of Implementation of Educational Change in an Urban Setting: Integrat- ing Teacher Effectiveness and Implementation Research. Unpublished paper. Col- lege of Education, University of Oregon. Cassidy, V. M., and Stanton, J. E. 1959 A,' Investigation of Factors Involved i'' the Educational Place',~e~zt of Mentally Retarded Children. Columbus. Ohio: Ohio State University Press. Chipman, S. F., Segal, J. W., and Glaser, R. In Thi'2ki'~g a'zd Lear'2i,2g Skills: Current Research and Ope'2 Questions (Vol. 2). press Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Christie, L. S., McKenzie, H. S., and Burdett, C. S. 1972 The consulting teacher approach to special education: inservice training for Regular classroom teachers. Focus o'' Exceptional Children 4:1-10.

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References 121 Cole, L. J. 1976 Adaptive Behavior of the Mentally Retarded Child in the Home and School En- vironment. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. School of Education, University of California, Berkeley. Coleman, J. S., Campbell, E. Q., Hobson, C. J., McPortland, J., Mood, A. M., Weinfield, F. D., and York, R. L. 1966 Equality of Educational Opportunity. Washington, D.C.: Office of Education, U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. Cooke, T. P., and Apolloni, T. 1976 Developing positive social-emotional behaviors: a study of training and generaliza- tion effects. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 9:65-78. Cooley, W. W., and Leinhardt, G. 1980 The instructional dimensions study. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 2:7-25. Corman, L., and Gottlieb, J. 1978 Mainstreaming mentally retarded children: a review of research. Pp. 251-275 in N. R. Ellis, ea., International Review of Research in Mental Retardation. Vol. 9. New York: Academic Press. Coulter, W. A., and Morrow, H. W. 1978 Adaptive Behavior: Concepts and Measurements. New York: Grune & Stratton. Cronbach, L. J., and Snow, R. E. 1977 Aptitudes and Instructional Methods: A Handbook for Research on I,zteractio'~s. New York: Irvington. Cruickshank, W. 1967 The Brai,'-I'~jured Child in Home, School arid Community. Syracuse, N.Y Syracuse University Press. Cruickshank, W., Bentzen, F. A., Ratzeberg, F. H., and Tannhauser, M. T. 1961 A Teaching Method for Brai'~-Injured and Hyperactive Children. Syracuse, N.Y Syracuse University Press. DeAvila, E. A., and Havassy, B. 1974 Intelligence of Mexica,'-An~erica'~ Children: A Field Study Comparing Neo Piage- tian arid Traditional Capacity and Achievement Measures. Austin, Tex.: Dissemi- nation Center for Bilingual Bicultural Education. Diana v. State Board of Education 1970 C. A. No. C-70-37 (N.D. Cal. 1970). 1973 C. A. No. C-70-37 (N.D. Cal. 1973). Doll, E. A. 1941 The essentials of an inclusive concept of mental deficiency. American Journal of Mental Deficiency. 46:214-219. Dunn, L. M. 1968 Special education for the mildly retarded-is much of it justifiable? Exceptional Children 35:5-22. 1973 Exceptional Children in the Schools: Special Education in Transition. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, Inc. Education Commission of the States 1974 National Assessment of Educational Progress. General Information Yearbook. Report no. 03/04-GIY. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Engle, R. W., and Nagle, R. J. 1979 Strategy training and semantic encoding in mildly retarded children. I,ztellige'~ce 3:1 7-30.

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122 REPORT OF THE PANEL Esposito, D. 1973 Homogeneous and heterogeneous ability grouping: principal findings and implica- tions for evaluating and designing more effective educational environments. Review of Educational Research 43:163-179. Parr, J. L., O'Leary, B. S., Pfeiffer, C. M., Goldstein, I. L., and Bartlett, C. J. 1971 Ethnic Group Membership as a Moderator in the Prediction of Job Performance: An Examination of Some Less Traditional Predictors. AIR technical report no. 2. Washington, D. C.: American Institutes for Research. Feuerstein, R., Rand, Y., and Hoffman, M. B. 1979 The Dynamic Assessment of Retarded Performers. The Learning Potential Assess- ment Device, Theory, Instruments, and Techniques. Baltimore, Md.: University Park Press. Feuerstein, R., Rand, Y., Hoffman, M. B., and Miller, R. 1980 Instrumental Enrichment. Baltimore, Md.: University Park Press. Fine, M. 1967 Attitudes of regular and special class teachers toward the educable mentally re- tarded child. Exceptional Children 33:429-430. Fisher, A. T. 1977 Adaptive Behavior in Non-Biased Assessments. Revised version of paper presented at the meeting of the American Psychological Association. ERIC Document Repro- duction Service No. ED 150 514. Fisher, C., Filby, N., Marliave, R., Cahen, L., Dishaw, M., Moore, J., and Berliner, D. 1978 Teaching Behaviors, Academic Learning Time, and Student Achievement. Final Report of Phase III-B, Beginning Teacher Evaluation Study. Technical report U-1. San Francisco, Calif.: Far West Laboratory for Educational Research and Devel- opment. Fox, W., Egner, A., Paolucci, P., Perelman, P., McKenzie, H. S., and Garvin, J. 1973 An introduction to a regular classroom approach to special education. Pp. 22-47 in E. Deno, ea., Instructional Alternatives for Exceptional Children. Reston, Va.: The Council for Exceptional Children. Goldman, R. D., and Hartig, L. K. 1976 The WISC may not be a valid predictor of school performance for primary-grade minority children. American Journal of Mental Deficiency 80(6):583-587. Goldschmid, M. L., and gentler, P. M. 1968 Concept Assessment Kit: Conservation, Manual and Keys. San Diego, Calif.: Educational and Industrial Testing Service. Goldstein, H. ~ 1974 The Social Learning Curriculum: Phases 1-10. Columbus, Ohio: Merrill. 1975 The Social Learning Curriculum: Phases 11-16. Columbus, Ohio: Merrill. Goldstein, H., Moss, J. W., and Jordan, L. 1965 The Efficacy of Special Class Training on the Development of Mentally Retarded Children. U.S. Office of Education, Cooperative Research Project report no. 619. University of Illinois, Urbana. Goodman, J. F. 1977 The diagnostic fallacy: a critique of Jane Mercer's concept of mental retardation. Journal of School Psychology 15: 197-205. Gresham, F. M. 1981 Social skills training with handicapped children: a review. Review of Educational Research 51:139-176.

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References 123 Grossman, H. J., ed. 1977 Manual on Terminology and Classification in Mental Retardation. American Association on Mental Deficiency. Baltimore, Md.: Garamond/Pridemark. Haring, N. G., and Krug, D. A. 1975 Placement in regular programs: procedures and results. Exceptional Children 41 :413-417. Harris, C. W., Alkin, M. C., and Popham, W. J., eds. 1974 Problems in Criterion-Referenced Measurement. Monograph no. 3. Los Angeles, Calif.: Center for Study of Evaluation, University of California, Los Angeles. Hartman, W. T. 1980 Policy Effects of Special Education Funding Formulas. Policy report no. 80-B1. Stanford, Calif.: Institute for Research on Educational Finance and Governance. Hayden, A. H., and Haring, N. G. 1977 The acceleration and maintenance of developmental gains in Down's syndrome school-age children. Pp. 129-141 in P. Mittler, ea., Research to Practice in Mental Retardation, Vol. I. Baltimore, Md.: University Park Press. H., and Albert, L. M., eds. Human Neuropsychology. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Hecaen, 1978 Heintz, P. 1974 Teacher expectancy for academic achievement. Mental Retardation 12:24-27. Hewett, F. M., and Forness, S. R. 1977 Education of Exceptional Learners. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Hobbs, N., ed. 1975 Issues in the Classification of Children. 2 vols. San Francisco, Calif.: Jossey-Bass, Inc. Hunt, J. McV. 1961 Intelligence and Experience. New York: Ronald Press Co. Jencks, C., Smith, M., Acland, H., Bane, M. J., Cohen, D., Gintis, H., Heyns, B., and Michelson, S. 1972 Inequality: A Reassessment of the Effect of Family and Schooling in America. New York: Basic Books. Jenkins, J. R., and Mayhall, W. F. 1976 Development and evaluation of a resource teacher program. Exceptional Children 43:21-29. Jensen, A. R. 1969 How much can we boost IQ and scholastic achievement? Harvard Educational Review 39(1):1-123. 1980 Bias in Mental Testing. New York: Free Press. Jones, R. L. 1979 Protection evaluation procedures: criteria and recommendations. Pp. 15-84 in PEP: Developing Criteria for the Evaluation Procedures Provisions. Philadelphia, Pa.: Research for Better Schools. Jones, R. L., Gottlieb, J., Guskin, S., and Yoshida, R. 1978 Evaluating mainstreaming programs: models, caveats, considerations, and guide- lines. Exceptional Children 44:588-601. Kaufman, M. E., and Alberto, P. A. 1976 Research on efficacy of special education for the mentally retarded. Pp. 225-255 in N. R. Ellis, ea., International Review of Research in Mental Retardation. New York: Academic Press.

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124 REPORT OF THE PANEL Kavale, K. 1981 Functions of the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA): are they trainable? Exceptional Children 47:496-510. Kirk, S. A. 1958 Early Education of the Mentally Retarded. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. Knight, M. F., Meyers, H. W., Paolucci-Whitcomb, P., Hasazi, S. E., and Nevin, A. 1981 A Four-Year Evaluation of Consulting Teacher Service. Unpublished manuscript. College of Education, University of Vermont. Kohlberg, L. 1968 Early education: a cognitive-developmental view. Child Development 39:1013- 1062. Lambert, N. M. 1978 The adaptive behavior scale-public school version: an overview. Pp. 157-183 in W. A. Coulter and H. W. Morrow, eds., Adaptive Behavior: Concepts and Mea- surements. New York: Grune & Stratton. 1981 Psychological evidence in Larry P. v. Wilson Riles: an evaluation by a witness for the defense. American Psychologist 36:937-952. Lambert, N. M., Windmiller, M., Cole, L. J., and Figueroa, R. A. 1975 AAMD Adaptive Behavior Scale Manual. Rev. ed. Washington, D.C.: American Association on Mental Deficiency. Lapouse, R., and Weitzner, M. 1970 Epidemiology. Pp. 197-223 in J. Wortis, ea., Mental Retardation-An Annual Review I. New York: Grune & Stratton. Larry P. v. Riles 1972 343 F. Supp. 1306 (N. D. Cal. 1972) (order granting preliminary injunction). 1974 502 F. 2d 963 (9th Cir. 1974) (per curiam) (affirming preliminary injunction). 1979 495 F. Supp. 926 (N. D. Cal 1979) (decision on merits) appeal docketed No. 80.4027 (9th Cir., Jan. 17, 1980). Lazarson, M. 1975 Educational instructions and mental subnormality: notes on writing a history. Pp. 33-52 in M. J. Begab and S. A. Richardson, eds., The Mentally Retarded and Society: A Social Science Perspective. Baltimore, Md.: University Park Press. Leinhardt, G., and Pallay, A. 1981 Restrictive Educational Settings: Exile or Haven? Unpublished manuscript. Uni- versity of Pittsburgh, Learning Research and Development Center. Leinhardt, G., Bickel, W., and Pallay, A. In Unlabeled but still entitled: toward more effective remediation. Teachers College press Record. Lemkau, P., Tietze, C., and Cooper, M. 1941 Mental hygiene problems in an urban district. Mental Hygiene 25:624-646. 1942 Mental hygiene problems in an urban district. Mental Hygiene 26:100-119, 275-288. Lerner, J. W. 1976 Children with Learning Disabilities. Boston, Mass.: Houghton Mifflin. Levine, M. 1976 The academic achievement test: its historicaJ context and social functions. American Psychologist 31:228-238. Lezak, M. D. 1976 Neuropsychological Assessme,~t. Oxford University Press.

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References Loehlin, J. C., Lindzey, G., and Spuhler, 1. N. 1975 Race Differences in Intelligence. San Francisco, Calif.: W. H. Freeman. MacMillan, D. L., and Borthwick, S. 125 1980 The new educable mentally retarded population: can they be mainstreamed? Men- tal Retard ation 18: 155- 158. MacMillan, D. L., and Meyers, C. E. 1979 Educational labeling of handicapped learners. Pp. 151-194 in D. C. Berliner, ea., Review of Research in Education. Washington, D.C.: American Education Re- search Association. MacMillan, D. L., Jones, R. L., and Aloia, C. F. 1974 The mentally retarded label: a theoretical analysis and review of research. Ameri- can Journal of Mental Deficiency 79:241-261. Martuza, V. R. 1977 Applying Norm-Referenced and Criterion-Referenced Measurement in Education. Boston, Mass.: Allyn and Bacon. Marver, J. D., and David, J. L. 1978 Three States Experiences with IEP Requirements Similar to P.L. 94-142. Menlo Park, Calif.: SRI International. Matthews, C. G. 1974 Applications of neuropsychological test methods in mentally retarded subjects. Pp. 267-287 in R. M. Reitan and L. A. Davison, eds., Clinical Neuropsychology: Cur- rent Status and Applications. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Mattie T. v. Holliday 1975 C. A. No. DC-75-31-S (N. D. Miss. 1975). Matuszek, P., and Oakland, T. 1979 Factors influencing teachers' and psychologists' recommendations regarding spe- cial class placement. Journal of School Psychology 17:116-125. Medley, D. M., and Mitzel, H. E. 1963 Measuring classroom behavior by systematic observation. Pp. 247-328 in N. L. Gage, ea., Handbook of Research on Teaching. Chicago, III.: Rand McNally. Mercer, J. R. 1973 Labeling the Mentally Retarded: Clinical and Social System Perspectives on Men- tal Retardation. Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press. 1979 System of Multicultural Pluralistic Assessment Technical Manual. New York: Psy- chological Corporation. Mercer, J. R., and Lewis, J. F. 1978 System of Multicultural Pluralistic Assessment. New York: Psychological Corpora- tion. Mercer, J. R., and Richardson, J. G. 1975 "Mental retardation" as a social problem. Pp. 463-496 in N. Hobbs, ea., Issues in the Classification of Children. San Francisco, Calif.: Jossey-Bass, Inc. Messe, L. A., Crano, W. D., Messe, S. R., and Rice, W. 1979 Evaluation of the predictive validity of tests of mental ability for classroom perfor- mance in elementary grades. Journal of Educational Psychology 71:233-241. Messick, S. 1980 Test validity and the ethics of assessment. American Psychologist 35:1012-1027. Meyen, E. L., and Hieronymous, A. N. 1970 The age placement of academic skills in curriculum for the EMR. Exceptional Children 36:333-339.

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Oakland, T., ed. 126 REPORT OF THE PANEL Meyers, C. E., Nihira, K., and Zetlin, A. 1979 The measurement of adaptive behavior. Pp. 431-481 in N. R. Ellis, ea., Handbook of Mental Deficiency, Psychological Theory and Research. Hillsdale, N.J.: Law- rence Erlbaum Associates. Mills v. Board of Education 1972 348 F. Supp. 866. (D.D.C. 1972). Monteiro M. 1981 Problems and Strategies in the Implementation of Direct Instruction in Public School Settings. Paper presented to the Association for Behavioral Analysis, Mil- waukee, Wisc. Mullen, F. A., and Itkin, W. 1961 Achievement and Adjustment of Educable Mentally Handicapped Children in Special Classes and in Regular Classes. Chicago, Ill.: Chicago Board of Education. Nihira, K., Foster, R., Shellhaas, M., and Leland, H. 1969 AAMD Adaptive Behavior Scale. Washington, D.C.: American Association on Mental Deficiency. (Revised edition published in 1975.) 1977 Psychological and Educational Assessment of Minority Children. New York: Brunner-Mazel. Parents in Action on Special Education (PASE) v. Hannon 1980 No. 74-C-3586 (N. D. Ill. 1980). Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Citizens v. Pennsylvania 1971 334 F. Supp. 1257 (E. D. Pa. 1971). 1972 modified, 343 F. Supp. 279 (E. D. Pa. 1972). Petersen, C. R., and Hart, D. H. 1978 Use of multiple discriminant function analysis in evaluation of a state-wide system for identification of educationally handicapped children. Psychological Reports 43:743-755. Pickholtz, H. J. 1977 The Effects of a Child's Racial-Ethnic Label and Achievement. Unpublished doc- toral dissertation, Department of Education, Pennsylvania State University. Pinard, A., and Laurendeau, M. 1964 A scale of mental development based on the theory of Piaget. Journal of Research Science in Teaching 2:253-260. Poland, S., Ysseldyke, J., Thurlow, M., and Mirkin, P. 1979 Current Assessment and Decision Making Practices in School Settings as Reported by Directors of Special Education. Research report no. 14. Minneapolis, Minn.: Institute for Research on Learning Disabilities. Reitan, R. M., and Davison, L. A., eds. 1974 Clinical Neuropsychology: Current Status and Applications. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Reschly, D. J. 1978 WISC-R factor structures among Anglos, Blacks, Chicanos and native American Papagos. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 46:417-422. 1979 Comparisons of Bias in Assessment with Conventional and Pluralistic Measures. Unpublished manuscript. Department of Psychology, Iowa State University. Reschly, D. J., and Jipson, F. 1976 Ethnicity, geographic locale, age, sex and urban-rural residence as variables in the prevalence of mild retardation. American Journal of Mental Deficiency 81:154- 161.

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References 127 Reschly, D. J., and Sabers, D. L. 1979 Analysis of test bias in four groups with regression definition. Journal of Educa- tional Measurement 16(1 ): 1-9. Reynolds, M. D., and Birch, J. W. 1977 Teaching Exceptional Children in All America s Schools: A First Course for Teachers and Principals. Reston, Va.: The Council for Exceptional Children. Rosenshine, B. V., and Berliner, D. C. 1978 Academic engaged time. British Journal of Teacher Education 4:3-16. Rutter, M., Tizard, J., and Whitmore, K. 1970 Education, Health and Behavior. London: Longman. Salvia, J., Clark, G., and Ysseldyke, J. 1973 Teacher retention of stereotypes of exceptionality. Exceptional Children 39:651- 652. Sandoval, J. 1979 The WISC-R and internal evidence of test bias and minority groups. Journal of Counseling and Clinical Psychology 47:919-927. Sarason, S. B., and Doris, J. 1979 Educational Handicap, Public Policy, and Social History. A Broadened Perspective on Mental Retardation. New York: Free Press. Sattler, J. M. 1974 Assessment of Children s Intelligence. Philadelphia Pa.: W. B. Saunders Com- pany. Schenk, S. J., and Levy, W. K. 1979 IEP's: The State of the Art-1978. Hightstown, N.J.: Northeast Regional Resource Center. ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 175-201. Segal, J. W., Chipman, S. F., and Glaser, R. In Thinking and Learning Skills: Relating Instruction to Basic Research (Vol. 1). press Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Smith, E. 1980 Test validation in the schools. Texas Law Review 58:1123-1159. Smith, I. L. 1980 Research in large-scale curriculum development for mildly retarded children. Pp. 148-175 in J. Gottlieb, ea., Educating Mentally Retarded Persons in the Main- stream. Baltimore, Md.: University Park Press. Stallings, J. A. 1977 Learning to Look: A Handbook on Classroom Observation and Teaching Models. Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth Publishing Co. Stearns, M. S., Greene, D., and David, J. L. 1979 Local Implementation of P.L. 94-142. Menlo Park, Calif.: SRI International. Stebbins, L. B., St. Pierre, R. G., Proper, E. C., Anderson, R. B., and Cerva, T. R. 1977 Education as Experimentation: A Planned Variation Model. An Evaluation of Follow Through. Volume IV-A. Report no. 76-196A. Cambridge, Mass.: Abt As- sociates, Inc. Stewart, M. D. 1980 Melanin and Sensori-motor Development in the Afrikan Child: An Alternative View of the Developmental Style of the Afrikan Infant. Unpublished manuscript. Department of Psychology, George Peabody College of Vanderbilt University. Strauss, A. A., and Lehtinen, L. E. 1947 Psychopathology and Education of the Brain-Injured Child. New York: Grune & Stratton.

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128 REPORT OF THE PANEL Tarjan, G., Wright, S., Eyman, R., and Keeran, C. 1973 Natural history of mental retardation: some aspects of epidemiology. American Journal of Mental Deficiency 77:369-379. Thouvenelle, S., and Hebbeler, K. 1978 Placement Procedures for Determining the Least Restrictive Environment Place- ment for Handicapped Children. Silver Spring, Md.: Applied Management Sci- ences, Inc. Thurlow, M. L., and Ysseldyke, J. E. 1980 Factors Influential on the Psychoeducation(ll Decisions Reached by Teams ~ Edu- cators. Research report no. 25. Minneapolis, Minn.: Institute for Research on Learning Disabilities. Tomlinson, J. R., Acker, N., Conter, A., and Lindborg, S. 1977 Minority status and school psychological services. Psychology i/2 the Schools 14:456-460. Tuddenham, R. D. 1970 A "Piagetian" test of cognitive development. Pp. 49-70 in W. B. Dockrell, ea., O.' Intelligence. London: Methuen. Turnure, J., Buium, N., and Thurlow, M. L. 1976 The effectiveness of interrogatives for promoting verbal elaboration productivity in young children. Child Development 47:851-855. U.S. Department of Education 1980 Second Annual Report to Congress oil the Inzpleme''tation of Public Law 94-142: The Education for All Handicapped Children Act. Office of Special Education. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education. U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare 1978a Fall 1976 Elementary and Secondary School Civil Rights Survey. Filial File Docu- mentation. June. Office for Civil Rights. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. 1978b 1978 Elementary and Secondary Civil Rights Survey. Sample Selection. February. Office for Civil Rights. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. 1979a Progress Toward a Free Appropriate Public Education: A Report to Congress oil the Implementation of P.L. 94-142: The Education for All Handicapped Children Act. Office of Education. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Health, Educa- tion, and Welfare. 1979b Progress Toward a Free Appropriate Public Education: Semi-A,znual Update on the Implementation of P.L. 94-142-The Educatio,' Jor All Handicapped Children Act. Bureau of Education for the Handicapped, U. S. Office of Education. 0-631-611/2923. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. 1979c Service Delivery Assessment: Education for the Handicapped. Unpublished report. Inspector General's Office, U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. U.S. General Accounting Office 1981 Disparities Still Exist i,2 Who Gets Special Educatio,?. Report no. IPE-81-1. Washington, D.C.: U.S. General Accounting Office. Uzgiris, I. C., and Hunt, J. McV. 1975 Assessment in Infancy: Ordinal Scales of Psychological Development. Urbana, III.: University of Illinois Press. Venezky, R. L., and Winfield, L. F. 1979 Schools That Succeed Beyond Expectations in Teaching Reading. Final Report submitted to the National Institute of Education. University of Delaware.

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BACKGROUND PAPERS

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