APPENDIX B

BENCHMARKING RESULTS TABLES



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INTERNATIONAL BENCHMARKING OF US MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING RESEARCH APPENDIX B BENCHMARKING RESULTS TABLES

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INTERNATIONAL BENCHMARKING OF US MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING RESEARCH Relative Position of Subfield: Biomaterials   Current Position Likely Future Position   Sub-Subfield 1 Forefront 2 3 Among world leaders 4 5 Behind world leaders 1 Gaining/Extending 2 3 Maintaining 4 5 Losing Comments Tissue engineering •         •         Clear US leadership; tremendous worldwide interest. Molecular architecture     •         •     Strong US competition from Germany and Japan. Protein analogs •         •         US dominates, driven by a basic-science approach. Biomimetics     •         •     Strong players in North America, UK, Japan. Contemporary diagnostic systems     •           •   Large European Community investments in biosensors research could lower US ranking. Advanced controlled-release systems   •         •       US leads; extremely high worldwide interest could change this. Bone biomaterials     •         •     Important developments in Europe and Japan.

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INTERNATIONAL BENCHMARKING OF US MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING RESEARCH   Current Position Likely Future Position   Sub-Subfield 1 Forefront 2 3 Among world leaders 4 5 Behind world leaders 1 Gaining/Extending 2 3 Maintaining 4 5 Losing Comments Sol-gel-derived materials •             •     Area advanced by US for production of monolithic glass. Self-assembled materials •         •         US leads in fundamental advances, technologic innovation, Integrated micromagnetics         • •         Japan leading in power systems on-a-chip applications; US and others ahead in development of new materials. Multilayer ferrite processing •         •         Being advanced primarily by US industry. 3D Nanoporous silicates     •         •     New synthesis approach deserves greater scrutiny Microwave dielectrics     •         •     Worldwide attention focused on producing low-, high-dielectric-constant materials. Electrophoretic thin-film     •         •     Area ripe for basic, applied materials preparation research. MEMS Heat engines •           •       MEMS heat engines made from SiC are a new US discovery. An exciting technology, and US enjoys a major lead. Investments in MEMS fabrication facilities, foundries needed to exploit opportunities.

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INTERNATIONAL BENCHMARKING OF US MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING RESEARCH Single-crystal high-authority ferroelectrics   •         •       Single-crystal-oxide ferroelectrics discovered in US provide unprecedented large strains in concert with large forces (high authority). Exploitation by DOD has begun. Broad-based effort needed to establish commercial technology that benefits from discovery. AlN–Diamond heat dissipation for power electronics     •           •   High-thermal-conductivity dielectrics, especially AlN, SiC, diamond are crucial for power electronics. Production capacity dominated by Japan; an unstable situation for the US. Films, coatings (thermal barrier coatings, diamondlike carbon, hydroxyapetite)     •           •   Ceramic films and coatings are increasingly important for thermal protection, wear resistance, corrosion protection. US leads; major efforts in the European Union, Japan.

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INTERNATIONAL BENCHMARKING OF US MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING RESEARCH Relative Position of Subfield: Composites   Current Position Likely Future Position   Sub-Subfield 1 Forefront 2 3 Among world leaders 4 5 Behind world leaders 1 Gaining/Extending 2 Maintaining 3 4 5 Losing Comments Polymer matrix composites   •             •   Implementation slow, because of cost. Cost reduction efforts continue, worldwide, Industry activity: US, Japan, France equally engaged. (a) Large integrated structures   •           •     Use of lower temperature curing matrices and electron beams allows manufacture of large integrated structures needed to reduce cost. Little basic research in US in support; France more progressive. (b) Ambient-temperature curing (electron beams)     •           •   Enabling for integrated structures: France active. (c) Design, testing protocols     •           •   New test methods and design practices needed to support cost reduction strategies. Minimal US activity other than NASA–ARL. Ceramic matrix composites   •           • •   Implementation in energy, aerospace sectors imminent. Research funding at US universities has essentially ceased. France and Japan have major initiatives. (a) Oxide composites   •           •     Recent emphasis. Most long-life applications required oxides; technology immature. US has slim leadership position. (b) Nonoxide composites, fibers     •           •   Japan and Germany more proactive. Stress oxidation remains a problem for many applications. Little academic activity on this topic. Japan has new program.

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INTERNATIONAL BENCHMARKING OF US MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING RESEARCH Metal matrix composites   •           •     New applications for particle-reinforce Al alloys led resurgence of US interest in these composites. Minimal research backup. (a) Particle-reinforced alloys   •             •   Some research on Al2O3–Al materials; research on SiC–Ti has ceased. US remains ahead. (b) Continuos fiber   •               •  

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INTERNATIONAL BENCHMARKING OF US MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING RESEARCH Relative Position of Subfield: Magnetic Materials   Current Position Likely Future Position   Sub-Subfield 1 Forefront 2 3 Among world leaders 4 5 Behind world leaders 1 Gaining/Extending 2 3 Maintaining 4 5 Losing Comments (sources of leadership) Thin-film micromagnetics of     •         •     CMU, NRL. Germany Interlayer magnetic coupling •             •     NIST, IBM Giant magnetoresistance (spin valves) •             •     IBM Spin-dependent tunneling     •     •         MIT, CMU. Japan Magnetic nanostructures •             •     Stanford, UCSD Colossal magnetoresistance   •           •     Univ. of Maryland, many others

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INTERNATIONAL BENCHMARKING OF US MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING RESEARCH Relative Position of Subfield: Metals   Current Position Likely Future Position   Sub-Subfield 1 Forefront 2 3 Among world leaders 4 5 Behind world leaders 1 Gaining/Extending 2 3 Maintaining 4 5 Losing Comments High-temperature structural intermetallics   •         •       US among leaders in basic experimental work; at forefront in studies for real structural applications. Amorphous (bulk), quasicrystalline, nanostructured materials (high-strength materials)     •         •     Bulk-glass-forming alloys were discovered in the US. Intensive study is going on in Japan. Theory, modeling of atomic bonding, crystal structure, interfaces, phase diagrams, phase transformations, properties •         •         Ab-initio calculations and non-ab-initio modeling excellent in US. Leadership at US national laboratories and universities. GMR, related materials •         •         Excellent studies for applications. Hydrogen-absorbing materials applications for batteries, hydrogen storage       •         •   Recent intensive studies in Germany, Japan. Advanced processing of materials to net shape (metallic alloys) •         •         Excellent work in US superalloys industry (jet engine disks). Quantitative understanding and models of plastic deformation (polycrystalline materials)     •         •     Good work in Europe, US in national laboratories, universities, industry. Quantitative understanding of structure evolution, plastic deformation of polycrystalline metallic alloys   •         •       Strong US and European capabilities and programs. Integration of models of structure evolution, plastic deformation, composition, processing (concurrent product–process design)   •         •       Good, but generally under–funded, programs in Europe, US. Strong capabilities at national laboratories, universities, and some companies in US, Europe.

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INTERNATIONAL BENCHMARKING OF US MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING RESEARCH Integration of dimensional scales from atomic clusters to test coupons to final products     •       •       No clear leader in this relatively new area Net shape, novel processing of metallic alloys   •       •         Will continue to be a major interest of global industries; no clear leader. Next generation of high-temperature alloys •             •     Effects of recent massive changes in global aerospace, defense industries not yet known Surface treatments to enhance structural performance     •         •     Coatings, etc., widely used; quantitative knowledge of effect on structural performance is weak.

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INTERNATIONAL BENCHMARKING OF US MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING RESEARCH Relative Position of Subfield: Electronic and Optical-Photonic Materials   Current Position Likely Future Position   Sub-Subfield 1 Forefront 2 3 Among world leaders 4 5 Behind world leaders 1 Gaining/Extending 2 3 Maintaining 4 5 Losing Comments Deep UV, electron lithography   •         •       US industry leads; rest of the world nearly equal. Key to further miniaturization in innovation a strong US area. Systems-on-a-chip •           •       Simulation, modeling extremely critical. US occupies preeminent position. Copper metalization   •           •     Processing R&D vigorous worldwide. Submicrometer plasma processing •         •         US, Japanese industries collaborate. Holographic storage materials   •         •       US industry, academia lead the world Organic transistors •           •       European industry, universities strong; US leads in materials, processing. Photonic band-gap materials   •       •         US universities, industry lead. Organic lasers, LEDs     •     •         US, European industry nearly equal; Japan expanding involvement. Blue-green lasers (gallium nitride materials)         •     •     Japanese industry lead; US industry competitive.

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INTERNATIONAL BENCHMARKING OF US MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING RESEARCH Semiconductor processing     •         •     Comparable in industrialized countries; US, Japan lead. Interconnects     •         •     Activities mainly in industry. This area needs, and soon could have, important innovations. Magnetic Storage   •           •     US, Japan share leadership in GMR. Widegap Lasers and Display       •       •     Japan started in widegap display, led in gallium nitride; other countries, including US, gaining. Japan is the clear leader in liquid crystal display. Nanomaterials •             •     Frontier with a promising future. US started, maintained lead; Europe, Japan investing heavily. Semiconductor equipment   •         •       US has advanced recently. Sematech contributed to success. Wireless       •     •       Strong capabilities in Europe. Fibers •             •     US does well in advancing research.

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INTERNATIONAL BENCHMARKING OF US MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING RESEARCH Relative Position of Subfield: Superconducting Materials   Current Position Likely Future Position   Sub-Subfield 1 Forefront 2 3 Among world leaders 4 5 Behind world leaders 1 Gaining/Extending 2 3 Maintaining 4 5 Losing Comments High-temperature superconductors (general)   •           •     Leadership between US and Japan Hig-temperature superconductor snythesis     •         •     Leadership distributed globally. Could change with next compound discovered. Processing of highly textured, dense bulk forms for wire, energy storage     •       •       Strong programs at ANL, LANL, and ORNL, US and Japan co-leaders. Japan is especially strong in energy storage. Magnetic phase diagrams, properties •           •       Strong capabilities at US universities, national laboratories. Statistical mechanical modeling of transport and critical phenomenon   •         •       US strong but not dominant; strong European capabilities. Experimental measurement of flux transport mechanisms   •         •       Strong US university, national laboratory capabilities. Modeling of optical, electronic properties   •           •     US leads fundamental research. Physical properties (other than magnetic)   •           •     Strong leadership at US universities. Development of fluxoid imaging technologies   •         •       Strong capabilities at US universities, industry, and national laboratories. Leading capabilities in Europe. Thin-film deposition processes   •             •   US leads; Japan could overtake. Epitaxial, patterning techniques •           •       US leads in surface, interface science.

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INTERNATIONAL BENCHMARKING OF US MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING RESEARCH Relative Position of Subfield: Polymers   Current Position Likely Future Position   Sub-Subfield 1 Forefront 2 3 Among world leaders 4 5 Behind world leaders 1 Gaining/Extending 2 3 Maintaining 4 5 Losing Comments 1. Controlled polymerization Metallocene polymerization of olefins Living free radical polymerization Atom transfer radical polymerization Dendrimer polymerization Biologic synthesis Supercritical CO2 as a polymerization medium   •           •     US leads in most areas; other countries have important programs, especially in (a) and (b) 2. Multicomponent systems Blends or alloys Block, graft copolymers Nanocomposites Macrocomposites Thin-film laminates Interfaces   •           •     US has strong position; many other countries investing heavily. 3. Biomedical polymers Implants Drug delivery •           •       US is preeminent. 4. Electronic–Photonic Conducting polymers Polymers for display devices Resist materials Electroluminescent   •         •        

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INTERNATIONAL BENCHMARKING OF US MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING RESEARCH 5. Separation media Membranes Molecular recognition Barrier materials Modified atmosphere packaging Coatings   •         •       US position strong; Europe, Asia have strong efforts in membranes. 6. Theory, modeling Molecular simulation Monte Carlo techniques Conformation Scaling theory   •           •     US is very strong; strong efforts also in Europe. 7. Processing Rheology Flow instability Computer modeling New processes     •         •     Very strong efforts in Germany

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INTERNATIONAL BENCHMARKING OF US MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING RESEARCH Relative Position of Subfield: Catalysts   Current Position Likely Future Position   Sub-Subfield 1 Forefront 2 3 Among world leaders 4 5 Behind world leaders 1 Gaining/Extending 2 3 Maintaining 4 5 Losing Comments Catalysis     •           •   Shape-selective catalysis, metallocene catalysis for polymerization, and application of catalysts for emissions control (automobile) economically critical in US. Selective oxidation       •         •   Selective oxidation is a growing area; applications from small to heavy chemical synthesis (30–40 million tons annually). Industry leaders in US and Europe. Solid acid–base catalysis     •             • Industrial activity highly competitive, secretive, largely focused in US. Environmental catalysis     •             • Environmental progress requires highly sophisticated industrial work. Advances made concert with applications. Strong capabilities in US, Europe, Japan. Catalyst characterization     •         •     This area has benefited from advances in atomic resolution microscopy, necessarily equipment dependent. Utility of work depends on strong links to applications. Combinatorial catalysis •             •     Still in its infancy; US is strong. Asymmetric catalysis     •           •   Highly specialized field of great importance limited-quantity manufacturing of products (significantly below the commodity level)—pharmaceuticals, agricultural chemicals. Industry leaders in US, Europe, Japan.

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