CONTENTS

 

 

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

 

15

 1.

 

INTRODUCTION

 
   

1.1  How Important Is It for The US To Lead In Immunology Research?

 

17

   

1.2  What Is Immunology?

 

17

   

1.3  Immunology As An Academic Discipline

 

18

   

1.4  What Is The International Nature Of Immunology?

 

19

   

1.5  What Are Some Caveats?

 

19

   

1.6  Panel Charge and Rationale

 

19

 2.

 

BENCHMARKING RESULTS

 
   

2.1  Methods

 

21

   

2.1.1  Reputation Survey

 

21

   

2.1.2  Citation Analysis

 

24

   

2.1.3  Journal Publication Analysis

 

24

   

2.2  Results

 

26

   

2.2.1  Reputation Survey

 

26

   

2.2.2  Citation Analysis

 

28

   

2.2.3  Journal Publication Analysis

 

28

   

2.3  Summary

 

29

 3.

 

KEY FACTORS

 
   

3.1  Funding

 

35

   

3.2  Human Resources

 

37

   

3.3  Infrastructure

 

37

   

3.4  Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Firms

 

38

   

3.5  The Clinical Trial

 

39

 4.

 

LIKELY FUTURE POSITION

 
   

4.1  Funding and Resource Limitations

 

43

   

4.2  Increased Competition from Europe and Other Countries

 

44

   

4.3  Clinical Immunology and the Shift Toward HMOs

 

44

   

4.4  Training of US Students

 

45

 5.

 

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

 
   

5.1  The United States Is The World Leader In All The Major Subfields Of Immunology But Is Only Among The World Leaders In Some Specific Sub-Subfields.

 

51

   

5.2  Flexibility To Pursue Original And Innovative Research Ideas Has Attracted Both Domestic And International Human Capital. Federal, State, And Private Funding Have All Contributed To A Climate Ripe For This Innovative Research.

 

51

   

5.3  Industrial Interests Have Fostered Many Striking Breakthroughs In

 


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 11
INTERNATIONAL BENCHMARKING OF US IMMUNOLOGY RESEARCH CONTENTS     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   15  1.   INTRODUCTION       1.1  How Important Is It for The US To Lead In Immunology Research?   17     1.2  What Is Immunology?   17     1.3  Immunology As An Academic Discipline   18     1.4  What Is The International Nature Of Immunology?   19     1.5  What Are Some Caveats?   19     1.6  Panel Charge and Rationale   19  2.   BENCHMARKING RESULTS       2.1  Methods   21     2.1.1  Reputation Survey   21     2.1.2  Citation Analysis   24     2.1.3  Journal Publication Analysis   24     2.2  Results   26     2.2.1  Reputation Survey   26     2.2.2  Citation Analysis   28     2.2.3  Journal Publication Analysis   28     2.3  Summary   29  3.   KEY FACTORS       3.1  Funding   35     3.2  Human Resources   37     3.3  Infrastructure   37     3.4  Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Firms   38     3.5  The Clinical Trial   39  4.   LIKELY FUTURE POSITION       4.1  Funding and Resource Limitations   43     4.2  Increased Competition from Europe and Other Countries   44     4.3  Clinical Immunology and the Shift Toward HMOs   44     4.4  Training of US Students   45  5.   SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS       5.1  The United States Is The World Leader In All The Major Subfields Of Immunology But Is Only Among The World Leaders In Some Specific Sub-Subfields.   51     5.2  Flexibility To Pursue Original And Innovative Research Ideas Has Attracted Both Domestic And International Human Capital. Federal, State, And Private Funding Have All Contributed To A Climate Ripe For This Innovative Research.   51     5.3  Industrial Interests Have Fostered Many Striking Breakthroughs In  

OCR for page 11
INTERNATIONAL BENCHMARKING OF US IMMUNOLOGY RESEARCH      Immunology.   52     5.4  A Scarcity Of Large-Scale Clinical Trials In Immunology Can Be Attributed To Shortages Of Funding And Of Qualified Personnel. In Addition, Increasing Dominance Of Managed Care Means That Fewer Patients Are Available To Academic Institutions For Clinical Trials.   52     5.5  Shifting Federal And Industry Priorities, A Potential Reduction In Access To Domestic And Foreign Talent, And The Increasing Cost Of Maintaining Mouse Facilities Could Curtail US Ability To Capitalize On Leadership Opportunities.   52  6.   REFERENCES   55  7.   APPENDIX: PANEL AND STAFF BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION   57

OCR for page 11
INTERNATIONAL BENCHMARKING OF US IMMUNOLOGY RESEARCH TABLES AND GRAPHS  Figure 2.1:   Contribution of United States and Other Nations to Immunology Papers in 1981-1996,   22  Figure 2.2:   Percentage of the World's Papers in Immunology in 1981-1996 by Country,   23  Figure 2.3:   Contribution of United States and Other Nations to Immunology Citations in 1981-1997,   25  Figure 2.4:   Percentage of World's Citations in Immunology in 1981-1997 by Country,   31  Figure 3.1:   U.S. Net Trade Balance: Biotechnology,   42  Figure 4.1:   Number of PhD Students in Immunology in the United States, 1977-1996,   46  Figure 4.2:   Percentage of US Citizen and Permanent-Resident PhD Students in Immunology Supported by National Institutes of Health, 1977-1996,   48  Table 2.1:   Immunology International Reputation Survey Results,   27  Table 2.2:   Relative Citation Impact by Country, 1981-1997,   30  Table 2.3:   Authorship of Immunology Papers in Blood, 1995-1997,   32  Table 2.4:   Authorship of Immunology Papers in Cell, 1995-1997,   32  Table 2.5:   Authorship of Immunology Papers in Immunity, 1995-1997,   32  Table 2.6:   Authorship of Immunology Papers in Nature, 1995-1997,   33  Table 2.7:   Authorship of Immunology Papers in Science, 1995-1997,   33  Table 2.8   Authorship of Immunology Papers in the Journal of Experimental Medicine, February 1996 - July 1996,   33  Table 3.1:   Analysis of Nobel Prizes Presented for Immunology Research,   38  Table 3.2:   Industry Comparable Metrics (Ecu in Millions),   40  Table 3.3:   Entrepreneurial Life Sciences Highlights (Ecu in Millions),   41  Table 4.1:   NIH Trainee and Fellowship Support in Immunology,   47  Table 4.2:   Employment Status of Doctorates in Immunology,   49

OCR for page 11
INTERNATIONAL BENCHMARKING OF US IMMUNOLOGY RESEARCH This page in the original is blank.