An additional animal-welfare concern, although not directly related to the ascites method, is the use of FBS during in vitro mAb production. It should not be assumed that in vitro procedures are inherently more humane; the use of fetal bovine serum raises questions with regard to the methods for collecting the serum, in that the serum might be obtained under circumstances that may lead to distress for the animals (McGuill and Rowan 1989).

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