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15. W. Calvin, R.N. Clark, R.H. Brown, and J.R. Spencer, "Observations of the Icy Galilean Satellites from 0.2 to 5 Microns: A Compilation, New Observations, and a Recent Summary," Journal of Geophysical Research 100: 19041, 1995.

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18. K.S. Noll, H.A. Weaver, and A.M. Connella, "The Albedo Spectrum of Europa from 2200 Å to 3300 Å," Journal of Geophysical Research 100: 19057, 1995.

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23. T.B. McCord, G. Hansen, F.P. Fanale, R.W. Carlson, D. Matson, T.V. Johnson, W. Smythe, J.K. Crowley, P.D. Martin, A. Ocampo, C.A. Hibbits, J.C. Granahan, and the NIMS Team, "Salts on Europa's Surface Detected by Galileo's Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer," Science 280: 1242, 1998.

24. G. Schubert, T. Spohn, and R. Reynolds, "Thermal Histories, Compositions and Internal Structures of the Moons of the Solar System," in Satellites, J.A. Burns and M.S. Matthews, eds., University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona, 1986, pages 224-292.

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29. J.D. Anderson et al., "Europa's Differentiated Internal Structure: Inferences from Four Galileo Encounters, Science 281: 2019, 1998.

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33. See, for example, G.J. Consolmagno and J.S. Lewis, "Structural and Thermal Models of Icy Galilean Satellites," in Jupiter, T. Gehrels, ed., University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona, 1976, page 1035.

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