5. Space Studies Board, National Research Council, Preventing the Forward Contamination of Europa, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 2000, in preparation.

6. Space Studies Board, National Research Council, Preventing the Forward Contamination of Europa, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 2000, in preparation.

7. See, for example, K. Horikoshi and W.D. Grant, eds., Extremophiles: Microbial Life in Extreme Environments, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1998.

8. M.J. Daly and K.W. Minton, "Resistance to Radiation," Science 270: 1318, 1995.

9. See, for example, Space Studies Board, National Research Council, Biological Contamination of Mars: Issues and Recommendations, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1992.

10. D.L. De Vincenzi, P. Stabekis, and J. Barengoltz, "Refinement of Planetary Protection Policy for Mars Missions," Advances in Space Research 18: 311, 1996.

11. See, for example, Mars Sample Handling and Requirements Panel, Final Report, Office of Space Science, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C., 1999.

12. Space Studies Board, National Research Council, Mars Sample Return: Issues and Recommendations, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1997.

13. Space Studies Board, National Research Council, Evaluating the Biological Potential in Samples Returned from Planetary Satellites and Small Solar System Bodies: Framework for Decision Making, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1998, page 81.

14. M.S. Race, "Mars Sample Handling and Planetary Protection in a Public Context, Advances in Space Research 22: 391, 1998.



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