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A Science Strategy for the Exploration of Europa
FIGURE 1.2 facing page Detail from the Planisphaerium Copernicanum copper plate in a mid-17th-century celestial atlas summarizing the state of astronomy. In this elegant depiction of the heliocentric theory, Galileo's discovery (1610) shows Jupiter orbiting the Sun to be itself "a center of motion" The four Galilean moons are shown as star-like objects, equidistant from Jupiter. It would be 300 years before these "Medicean stars" would be shown to be the individual worlds of Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto. (From Atlas Coelestis seu Harmonia Macrocosmica of Andreas Cellarius, 1660-1661 edition, Amsterdam. Courtesy of the Mendillo Collection.)