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OCR for page R11
A Science Strategy for the Exploration of Europa Contents Executive Summary 1 1 Why Europa? 7 References, 12 2 Current State of Knowledge About Europa 13 Geology and Composition of the Surface, 13 Structure and Composition of the Deep Interior, 22 Evidence for the Presence of a Liquid-Water Mantle, 22 Atmosphere and Ionosphere, 23 Magnetic-Field and Energetic-Particle Environment in the Vicinity of Europa, 25 Potential for Biological Activity, 26 Summary of Open Issues Regarding Europa, 27 References, 28 3 Strategy for the Post-Galileo Exploration of Europa 31 Global Characterization of Geology and Surface Composition, 31 Global Mapping of Topography and Gravity, 32 Mapping of Ice Thickness and Internal Structure of the Icy Shell, 33 Characterization of Deep Interior Structure and Dynamical Processes, 34 Determination of the Geochemical Environment of the Surface and Possible Ocean, 35 References, 40 4 Earth-based Studies and Technology Development 41 Terrestrial Field and Remote-Sensing Studies, 41 Laboratory Studies, 49 Theoretical Studies, 51 Telescopic Observations, 53
OCR for page R12
A Science Strategy for the Exploration of Europa Technology Development for Future Europa Missions, 54 References, 56 5 Related Issues 59 Planetary Protection, 59 Interagency Cooperation, 62 References, 62 6 Conclusions and Recommendations 64 Priority Status of Europa Exploration, 64 The Need for a Systematic Program of Exploration, 64 Elements of a Comprehensive Exploration Program, 65 Priorities for the Initial Europa Mission, 66 Priorities for Follow-on Europa Missions, 66 Laboratory, Theoretical, and Telescopic Studies, 67 Technology Development, 67 Terrestrial Analogs, 68 Interdisciplinary and Interagency Issues, 68 References, 68