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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

The Institute of Medicine was chartered in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to enlist distinguished members of the appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. In this, the Institute acts under the Academy's 1863 congressional charter responsibility to be an adviser to the federal government and on its own initiative in identifying issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine.

This project was funded by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Food and Drug Administration, U.S Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service, U.S. Department of Commerce National Marine Fisheries Service, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Frito-Lay, Inc.; Hershey Foods; Kellogg Company; Kraft Foods, Inc.; McDonald's Corporation, Monsanto Company; Nabisco, Inc.; Nestlé USA; Proctor & Gamble; and Ross Products. The opinions expressed herein are those of the workshop participants and do not necessarily reflect those of the funders.

International Standard Book No. 0-309-06486-4

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 99-62305

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Copyright 1999 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

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The serpent has been a symbol of long life, healing, and knowledge among almost all cultures and religions since the beginning of recorded history. The image adopted as a logotype by the Institute of Medicine is based on a relief carving from ancient Greece, now held by the Staatliche Museen in Berlin.



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