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Trends in Science and Technology Policy The EU Perspective on Transatlantic Cooperation Jorma Routti Director General DGXII European Commission I welcome the opportunity to be here today to explore the opportunities asso- ciated with the new U.S.-European Union (KU) science and technology (S&T) agreement. We believe it has rich potential, and we are grateful to the National Academy of Sciences for hosting this event; after all, a key ingredient in coopera- tion is knowing your partner. Accordingly, my charge today is to say something about trends in S&T policy in the European Union, and to do this I will focus on new themes in the KU' s Fifth Framework Programme for research and develop- ment. Perhaps the most prominent theme in the Fifth Framework Programme is the socioeconomic dimension of research and development (R&D). Moving into the next century, the Fifth Framework Programme hopes to promote R&D that improves the quality of life of all of our citizens while doing so in an environmen- tally sustainable way. This involves a interdisciplinary approach to R&D, as we work as a community to push the frontiers of science and technology and, where appropriate, with partners across the Atlantic and around the globe. But before getting into the details of how we hope to accomplish these goals, let me tell you why we fund collaborative R&D at the level of the European Community and provide some background on past Framework Programmes. BENEFITS OF EUROPEAN COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH In Europe we recognize that we must invest more in research and technol- ogy. European Union countries spend 1.8 percent of GDP (gross domestic prod- uct) on civil R&D, as opposed to 2.5 percent in the United States and 2.8 percent in Japan. There are several reasons why community-wide collaboration in R&D makes sense: 24

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JORMA ROUITI 25 Bringing together researchers from several EU countries deepens the pool of research talent in any one project and broadens linkages across borders, which in turn contributes to R&D dynamism. An increasing number of research issues, such as climate change and ma- rine and terrestrial ecosystems, can be carried out effectively only with trans-national coordination. Large-scale research infrastructure is increasing costly, even when dis- tributed across many EU members. THE NATURE AND EVOLUTION OF FRAMEWORK PROGRAMMES The EU's Framework Programme comprises four activities: research, technology development, and demonstration, which make up 87 percent of all expenditures in the Fourth Framework Programme. international cooperation in research, which involves partnerships with non-EU countries and international organizations, builds R&D links to less developed countries and fosters access of EU countries to cutting- edge research elsewhere; dissemination and exploitation of research, through technology transfer and monitoring of best R&D practices elsewhere; and stimulation of training of researchers through international fellowship pro- grams. The First Framework Programme was established in 1984 and initially was modest in scale; today, the Fourth Framework Programme is three times the size in real terms of the first program and amounts to 3.5 billion Ecu annually. The Framework Programme accounts for 4 percent of all civil R&D in the EU and 4 percent of the total European Community budget. In general, the EU's four Framework Programmes have funded R&D in five areas: energy, life sciences, environment, industrial materials and technologies, and information and commu- nications technologies. Research priorities have shifted over the years. Energy has diminished in relative importance over time, and information and communi- cations technologies, having peaked in funding in the 1980s, have declined some- what. Areas such as transportation and socioeconomic research have, in contrast, experienced funding increases. THE FIFTH FRAMEWORK PROGRAMME: A NEW STRATEGIC APPROACH The Fifth Framework Programme, which runs from 1998 to 2002, recog- nizes that, with the EU rapidly integrating, a broader strategy based on knowl- edge, innovation, and education and training is necessary. Society faces major

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26 TRENDS IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY issues such as environmental protection and well-being of citizens, in addition to economic competitiveness. To meet these challenges, concentration and ~Qexibil- ily have become the key concepts in the Fifth Framework Programme. This means that the EU plans to become more flexible in the allocation of resources while focusing on socioeconomic aspects of research and its application, not just tech- nology. To adhere to our principles of concentration and flexibility, the Fifth Frame- work Programme is organized into four thematic programs and three horizontal programmer, with a budget of 16.3 Ecu over four years. This contrasts with the Fourth Framework Programme, which involved some 20 separate and specific research programs. The four thematic areas are life sciences and biotechnology, user-friendly information technologies, competitive and sustainable growth of industries, and energy and environment. To maximize returns, the objective is to concentrate on a limited number of objectives in order to strengthen the EU's S&T base. This involves a focus on generic R&D and support of the research infrastructure throughout the European Community. In our planned research on information technologies, we seek to develop next-generation digital services that improve citizens' access to govern- ment services and deliberation. It also means developing multimedia content and tools that enable cultural and linguistic diversity while encouraging electronic publishing. For sustainable growth our objective is to improve land transport and marine technologies in order to move people and goods more efficiently. Our plan also calls for improvement in air traffic control technologies. (For a detailed list of thematic areas, I recommend the paper I have with me today on the Fifth Frame- work Program, coauthored with William Cannell; see Appendix). The three horizontal programs, which are designed to complement the the- matic ones, are international cooperation, promotion of innovation and participa- tion of small and medium enterprises (SMEs), and improving training and mobil- ity of researchers. If we refer to the agenda for this conference, we see how nicely the thematic areas in the Fifth Framework Programme fit. Our general topic here is interna- tional cooperation, and we have separate sessions tomorrow on SMEs and the internationalization of the technical work force. THE SOCIAL DIMENSION Let me conclude by underscoring an important theme from the Fifth Frame- work Programme socio-economic research. We do maintain our focus on the natural sciences and technology, but we have a new emphasis on the socioeco- nomic dimensions of science and technology. As technology becomes a more pervasive part of all our lives, it is important to acknowledge how social, behav- ioral, and economic factors work together to shape the development and applica

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JORMA ROUITI 27 lions of technology. By recognizing these interrelated factors the European Union wants to make science and technology do more for the quality of life of its citi- zens, while leaving a healthy planet for our children and grandchildren. We have a broad range of topics for potential cooperation that we will explore today and tomorrow. I look forward both to the discussions on substantive topics and the expanded cooperation that will result.