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Internationalization of the Technical Workforce and Transatlantic Cooperation in R&D William Wulf President National Academy of Engineering In setting the stage for the panel's discussion on internationalization of the technical work force, Dr. Wulf commented on the importance of people in mak- ing transatlantic cooperation work. The ability of people from different cultures to work together will be the key to transatlantic collaboration, which makes inter- nationalization of the technical work force an issue to be explored. People who are able to work well with individuals from different cultures will prosper in the global economy. Dr. Wulf expressed the hope that the panelists would discuss how to improve links between the technical work forces of the United States and Europe. E. Praestgaard European Science and Technology Assembly, Denmark Dr. Praestgaard began his remarks by stating that it should be possible to develop a "win-win strategy" to further the internationalization of the technical work force while respecting the cultures and autonomy of individuals and na- tions. It is a matter of political will to develop and implement such a strategy. After all, Dr. Praestgaard said, "we are a generation of European scientists trained in the United States," and this should have a positive impact in creating a truly international technical work force. Although the flow of Europeans to the United States for scientific and tech- nical training remains strong, there is a shortfall of U.S. scientists and engineers in Europe. Dr. Praestgaard recalled a time when many U.S.-trained scientists did postdoctorate work in Europe and remained there. This practice has been on the decline in recent years. Dr. Praestgaard cited two reasons for this downward trend: 88

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INTERNATIONALIZATION OF THE TECHNICAL WORKFORCE 89 Funding. Currently a good deal of funding goes through government pro- grams on both sides of the Atlantic and is therefore directed to specific research areas. This has become a substitute for "professor-to-professor" contacts that once served as a catalyst for many informal postdoctorate programs, especially for U.S. students coming to Europe. Career planning. There is a perception that choosing to pursue a post- doctorate in Europe is a bad career move for young American researchers. Even if that perception is ill founded, it has had a noticeable impact on the flow of American researchers to Europe. In looking at the European experience, Dr. Praestgaard said that the Euro- pean Union Framework Programmes have been successful in internationalizing research by explicitly constructing teams of researchers from different countries to work on different projects. For U.S.-European scientific collaboration, the key to long-term success will rest on a steady exchange of scientific and technical personnel. It is important to develop mechanisms for such exchanges. Mechanisms for Exchange Dr. Praestgaard said that many European Union members may view the ex- change of scientists and engineers as a worthy goal but one that is best left to bilateral efforts. Bilateral measures may work for large countries, such as the United Kingdom, Germany, and France, but they are likely to be less helpful for smaller countries such as Denmark. European-wide efforts would therefore be useful to ensure that all countries benefit from exchanges of scientists and engi- neers. Such European-wide efforts could also battle the perception that collabora- tion with Europe is held in low esteem in the United States; by marshaling all of Europe's resources, collaboration may be more attractive for Americans. Developing Networks One way to develop rich networks between the United States and Europe is to have researchers from both sides work together on projects that are two to four years in duration. Dr. Praestgaard said that the European Commission already has mechanisms for developing intra-European networks. Extending such mecha- nisms to the United States and other countries could be one way to develop long- term networks, although Dr. Praestgaard cautioned that there may be concerns about the appropriateness of opening up such existing European mechanisms to other countries. Need for Funding As important as it is to ensure that individuals from both sides engage in

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90 NEW VISTAS IN T^NSAT~IC SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY COOPERATION greater interaction, Dr. Praestgaard said that more funding is crucial to further the internationalization of the scientific and technical work forces in the United States and Europe. An important objective is increasing the flow of postdoctorate re- searchers coming from the United States to Europe. For that to occur, Dr. Praestgaard concluded, more money is needed. H. Glatz DaimlerBenz, Germany Mr. Glatz said that he would focus on education and its role in promoting transatlantic cooperation as well as how the global market will promote interna- tionalization of the work force. First, he wanted to make some points about intel- lectual property rights, especially in light of Dr. Routti's comments in the prior session. Mr. Glatz said that the different approaches to patents in the United States and Europe the United States having a "first to file" approach versus Europe's "first to invent" approach is the key difference between the two sides regarding R&D. Mr. Glatz stressed that the European Patent Agency is a simplifying mecha- nism, because it does not require patent applications in 15 countries. Even though different intellectual property rights laws remain a barrier in conducting transat- lantic R&D, the business community and the governments on both sides, as well as academics, are working to lower the barriers that are associated with intellec- tual property law. Education Promoting the internationalization of the scientific and technical work force through educational institutions remains a key theme in Europe, but the transat- lantic component has been neglected. Mr. Glatz sees many U.S. students working in his company, but he believes that the number of such students has been declin- ing in recent years. Less money for such exchanges is the main reason for the decline. The Rise of Global Markets For business the rise of global markets closely parallels the growing interna- tionalization of the scientific and technical work forces. If Daimler Benz is devel- oping a car in Alabama, many of its German engineers, along with employees from its Palo Alto research and design center, will spend time on site. As the Daimler Benz-Chrysler merger proceeds, the internationalization of the work forces from both companies will accelerate. In light of the trend toward internationalization, Mr. Glatz asked whether the Japanese "closed-door" strategy in developing the 300-mm wafer technology was sound. Alternatively, was it better to use the "open-door" approach as

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INTERNATIONALIZATION OF THE TECHNICAL WORKFORCE 91 SEMATECH has done in I300I that invites wide participation? Mr. Glatz noted that Japan has had some success in the past with the "closed-door" strategy. What- ever the merits of such a strategy, it surely will not promote the internationaliza- tion of the scientific and technical work forces. Mr. Glatz concluded by saying that joint work among young researchers on international projects acclimates researchers to working in an international con- text. This is the key to building future links for collaboration. Not only do such links help business, but they further foster the internationalization of the technical work force. Henri Conze Ministry for Defense (1993-1996), France Mr. Conze placed his remarks on the internationalization of the technical work force in the context of the growing importance of transatlantic cooperation to the European economy. Industrial Restructuring With European economies becoming increasingly integrated, European in- dustry will need to continue restructuring to meet competitive challenges. Grow- ing transatlantic trade will also affect European industrial restructuring. Greater transatlantic S&T cooperation will be a part of growing trade relations, which means that S&T cooperation will likely play a role, perhaps indirectly, in Europe's changing industrial structure. Role of Individuals in Making Cooperation Work Mr. Conze recalled that during his career in the French government he signed 20 cooperative agreements between the United States and France. Only one agree- ment is still alive; the rest failed, mostly because of bureaucratic inertia. Only committed individuals can make such agreements work, and this will be true for the U.S.-EU S&T agreement, too. International agreements, when they fail, usu- ally fall victim to cultural misunderstandings. Individuals must work through such misunderstandings, and one way to build the capacity to do this is through long- term relationships among S&T professionals. The U.S.-EU S&T agreement is an opportunity to pave the way for a world in which American and European re- searchers can operate together in the global marketplace. In concluding, Mr. Conze said that resistance to collaboration among scien- tists and engineers still exists on both sides of the Atlantic. Engaging students in collaboration at an early stage in their careers is one way to overcome such resis- tance. For both sides, such integration of scientific and technical work forces will increasingly be a condition for competitive success in global markets.

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92 NEW VISTAS IN T^NSAT~IC SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY COOPERATION Gary Poehlein National Science Foundation In previewing his remarks Dr. Poehlein said that, in addition to his position at the National Science Foundation (NSF), he is a professor of chemistry at Geor- gia Institute of Technology, whose main campus is in Atlanta, but which also has a campus in France. He stated that his comments would reflect his experiences at NSF and Georgia Tech. During his academic career, Dr. Poehlein has taught many foreign students, many of whom have stayed in the United States and contributed greatly to this country. He has also seen a number of U.S. students spend time abroad but said that the United States would benefit from having more students spend a greater amount of time overseas. Dr. Poehlein identified the following barriers to U.S. science and engineering students studying abroad: . Finances. More fellowships are needed for overseas study. Language. Language barriers remain significant, and language training would help lower the barriers. Impatience of young people. Many students do not want to extend their educational programs by one year through overseas experience. Lack of perceived career advantage. The bias against spending time abroad exists, but it may be declining, especially as the chemical industry becomes more international. Dr. Poehlein observed that there was a large difference in perspectives on international study between business schools and the science and engineering community. Business students see a clear advantage to international experience, but science and engineering students do not widely share this view. Because the business community is ahead of its counterparts in science and engineering on international education, Dr. Poehlein suggested enlisting the business community to advocate international education among scientists and engineers. Business wants to hire the best science and engineering students from universities, and it also wants to engage universities in research. Perhaps business could deepen its relationships with scientists and engineers at universities by providing intern- ships for students abroad. Students could, for example, work at overseas indus- trial labs, thereby addressing students' financial concerns while providing busi- ness something of value. In conclusion, Dr. Poehlein said that to advance the internationalization of the technical work force U.S. business should offer more opportunities for U.S. science and engineering students to gain experience abroad.

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INTERNATIONALIZATION OF THE TECHNICAL WORKFORCE Dieter Seitzer Fraunhofer Institute, Erlangen-Nurnberg, Germany 93 In framing his remarks, Dr. Seitzer gave some historical background on the Fraunhofer Institutes, saying that Fraunhofer himself was an optical scientist. Fraunhofer was also an engineer who developed precision tools and glass with the objective of doing better research in optics. Eventually Fraunhofer became an entrepreneur, starting his own business to manufacture glass and precision tools for optics. Fraunhofer's background very much captures the spirit of the institutes in Germany that bear his name. Science, engineering, and entrepreneurship are all closely tied together in the Fraunhofer Institutes, which try to do cutting-edge research and engineering while also working closely with industry so that the institutes' research can be applied in manufacturing and business processes. To be close to their customers, the Fraunhofer Institutes are spread out around Germany, usually close to industrial centers and universities. Of its 9,000 em- ployees, about 3,000 work part time these are mostly students. Often, students start out at Fraunhofer as assistants; as they advance to Ph.D. studies, they be- come valuable contributors to the institutes' work. Of Fraunhofer' s full-time tech- nical staff, totaling 4,500, nearly two-thirds also hold positions with universities. Much of the institutes' work is contract research and development for indus- try; most studies look at technological feasibility or develop prototypes. The Fraunhofer Institutes offer continuing education to scientists and engineers in industry who may have graduated 15 to 20 years ago and need to be updated on the latest developments in their fields. Finally, the Fraunhofer Institutes have exchange programs with other Euro- pean countries. Dr. Seitzer said that Fraunhofer participates in the European Union's COMET program by which students in one country do research and engineering work for businesses in another country. With over 200 industrial clients, Fraunhofer has a great capacity to place students in German industry. Dr. Seitzer concluded by saying that the Fraunhofer Institutes are ready to welcome U.S. students through exchange programs. COMMENTS FROM THE AUDIENCE Brian Randall of the University of Newcastle suggested that a prestigious fellowship program be established to encourage more U.S. students to spend time in Europe at university or business research institutions. He said that such a fel- lowship program could be an adjunct to the U.S.-EU science and technology agreement. In light of the National Academy of Sciences' New Vistas conference and the Einstein statue outside the Academy's main building, perhaps such a program could be called the Einstein Fellowship, which would capture the trans- atlantic objective of the fellowship. It would be important, Dr. Randall concluded, to use prestige and funding as an incentive to encourage U.S. science and engi- neering students to work and study in Europe.