Paths through which research influences practice.

tion and professional development programs for both teachers and administrators will need to incorporate the principles of learning.

Teachers work with teaching tools. They are unlikely to change their practice significantly in the absence of supporting curricular materials. Those who develop curricula and companion guides, software, instructional techniques, and assessments will therefore need to understand and incorporate the principles of learning into their products if teachers are to successfully change their practice.

But change at the classroom level can be supported or thwarted by public policy. For the principles in How People Learn to affect practice, district-level school boards and administrators must be persuaded of the value of that change, and must lend it legitimacy and support. Policy makers at the national and state levels will also need to understand those principles and to set policies that are consistent with them. Otherwise, teacher efforts can be undermined by standards, assessments, and teaching and textbook requirements. Moreover, the level of funding allocated to activities required for change can facilitate or debilitate the effort.

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