from the University of Colorado, both in experimental, quantitative psychology.

DAVID BERLINER is professor of educational leadership and policy studies professor of curriculum and instruction, and professor of psychology in education at Arizona State University. His recent research has focused on the study of teaching, teacher education, and education policy. His publications include Putting Research to Work in Your Schools (1993, with U. Casanova) and A Future for Teacher Education (1996). Dr. Berliner currently serves on the National Research Council's Board on Testing and Assessment. Among his many awards are the research into practice award of the American Educational Research Association, and the Distinguished Service Award of the National Association of Secondary School Principals. He has served as president of the American Psychology Association's division of educational psychology and the American Educational Research Association. He has a Ph.D. in educational psychology from Stanford University and has taught at California State University at San Jose, the University of Massachusetts, and the University of Arizona.

MYRNA S. COONEY is a teacher with over 35 years of classroom experience. She currently teaches grades 6 and 7 at the Taft Middle School in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, and serves on curriculum committees for language arts and social Studies. She has previously caught grades 4, 5, and 6 at Cleveland Elementary School in Cedar Rapids. Ms. Cooney has a B.A. in education from Coe College and an M.A. in education from the University of Iowa. She has been an instructor in a reacher-in-service program at the University of Iowa and a teacher-in-residence at Vanderbilt University.

M. SUZANNE DONOVAN (Study Director) is a senior program officer at the National Research Council's Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education and study director for the Committee on Minority Representation in Special Education. Her interests span issues of education and public policy. She has a Ph.D. from the University of California, Berkeley, School of Public Policy and was previously on the faculty of Columbia University's School of Public and International Affairs.

ARTHUR EISENKRAFT is the science coordinatory (grades 6–12) and physics teacher in the Bedford Public Schools in Bedford, New York. He has taught high school physics in a variety of schools for 24 years. Dr. Eisenkraft is currently on the Interstate New Teacher Assessment and Support Consor-



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