Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.
OCR for page 227
--> Appendix B Current Reporting of Industrial Environmental Performance Metrics by U.S. Semiconductor Companies To examine the comparability of environmental metrics reported (and presumably used by companies) within an industry, the committee surveyed the annual and environmental reports of semiconductor manufacturers (also found on the websites of the companies). Both the categories and units of measurements used by these companies are shown below. Table B-1 summarizes the categories of metrics covered by this small set of companies. Intel Corporation (http://www.intel.com/intel/other/ehs/index.htm) VOC (volatile organic compound) emissions (tons per year) Hazardous organic and inorganic air pollutant emissions (tons) NOx, CO, and SO2 emissions (tons per year) Phospene emissions (tons) Sulfuric acid emissions (tons) Particulate emissions—particulate matter measuring 0–10 μm (tons) Hazardous waste generation (thousand tons per year, recycled) Solid waste recycling—cardboard, metal, paper, plastic, wood (percent recycled, tons per year), other Chemical waste management—incineration, other treatment or disposal, recycling, energy recovery (percent) Nonhazardous chemical waste management (tons, recycled) Water use (millions of gallons per year, gallons per employee per day) Wastewater reuse (total gallons and percent reuse) Energy use (million kilowatt-hours)
OCR for page 228
--> Natural gas (million cubic feet) Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) Title III releases and off-site treatment (tons per year) SARA Title III reportable chemicals by site—releases to air, transfers off-site (pounds) Compliance issues (violations, fines, corrective actions) Regulatory inspections and citations (number/$) Award and recognition Texas Instruments (http://www.ti.com/corp/docs/esh/index.htm) Hazardous waste—disposal, recycled, recycle off-the-shelf chemicals, manufacturing waste (1,000s of pounds, percent, and manufacturing output) Nonhazardous waste (1,000s of pounds, percent disposal, and recycled) 33/50 chemicals (percent of total used and total released to air, surface water; United States only) SARA chemicals (1,000s of pounds and percent of total used that is released to air, land, and water; United States only) Greenhouse gases (pounds of PFCs [perfluorocarbons] released or percent of total used) Energy usage—electricity, gas, fuel, water (BTUs) Recycled packaging Inspections, fines, and violations Awards and recognition Motorola Corporation (http://www.mot.com/EHS/) Hazardous waste—disposal, recycled, manufacturing waste (quantity and production unit) Nonhazardous waste—disposal, recycled (quantity/production unit) VOC air emissions (tons) Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) releases (millions of pounds) 33/50 chemicals (percent of total used and pounds that are released to air, surface water; United States only) SARA chemicals (total 1,000s of pounds and percent of total used that is released to air, land and water; United States only) Energy usage—electricity, gas, fuel (BTUs) Water usage (gallons) Awards Inspections, fines, and violations
OCR for page 229
--> Hewlett Packard (http://www.hp.com/abouthp/envrnmnt/) Hazardous waste generation and disposal (millions of pounds) Nonhazardous solid waste recycling and disposal (millions of pounds) ODSs (ozone-depleting substances; pounds) TRI Chemicals (millions of pounds) 33/50 Chemicals (millions of pounds) Global warming gases (PFC emissions) Product/shipping packaging Energy consumption and product use National Semiconductor (http://www.national.com/environment/) Hazardous waste Nonhazardous waste Electronic scrap Chemical emissions (pounds/$1,000 sales) 33/50 Chemicals (total released in 1,000s of pounds) Awards and recognition ODSs Water Energy Lucent Technologies (http://www.lucent.com/environment/) Energy (millions of dollars in savings) Air emissions CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons) VOCs Hazardous waste disposal (millions of pounds) Nonhazardous solid waste—recycling, disposal (millions of pounds) ESH (environment, safety, and health) audits and corrective actions Environmentally responsible manufacturing Environmentally responsible packaging Greenhouse gas emissions Water usage Remediation Compliance Awards and recognition AMD (http://www.amd.com/about/investor/1997annual/annual.html) Hazardous waste (1,000s of pounds)
OCR for page 230
--> Nonhazardous solid waste (1,000s of pounds) TRI emissions (1,000s of pounds, percent) PFCs Energy Water Packaging Awards and recognition Digital Equipment (http://www.digital.com/ehs/) Hazardous waste—office, nonoffice (kilograms) Nonhazardous solid waste (kilograms) Compliance (notices of violation, penalties) Energy consumption (million kilowatts-hours, kilowatt-hours/square foot) Remediation Air emissions (kilograms) Water emissions (kilograms) Toxic chemical use in production (kilograms) VOC emissions (kilograms) ODS usage—total CFC, hydrofluorocarbons, halon emitted (kilograms) Total water use (millions of cubic meters) Water use per employee (millions of cubic meters) International Business Machines (http://www.ibm.com/ibm/environment/) Hazardous waste reduction—closed-loop recycling, off-site recycling, treatment, and disposal (percent, tons) Nonhazardous waste recycled (percent recycled, total generated) PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl) waste 33/50 Chemicals usage (percent) SARA Title III releases and transfers (percent, tons) Ozone concentration in California (parts per billion) Energy (kilowatt-hours, gallons of fuel saved, tons of carbon dioxide emissions) Environmental costs and savings PFCs Water (gallons/year) Spills and releases Fines and penalties Recycled materials in new products (percent) Recycled plastic use in new products (percent) Landfill space used for IBM equipment dismantling operations (percent) Awards and recognition
OCR for page 231
--> Rockwell International (http://www.rockwell.com/about/env/) Hazardous waste generation (1,000s of tons, disposal type) SARA emissions, releases, and transfers (millions of pounds, percent) 33/50 Emissions (millions of pounds, 1,000s of pounds, percent by chemical) ODS chemicals (percent) Fuel and energy usage Carbon dioxide emissions (1,000s of tons) Environmental costs Environmental compliance (fines, violations, penalties) Awards and recognition
OCR for page 232
--> TABLE B-1 Data Collected from Company Public ESH Annual Reports NOTE: Highlighted column entries represent metrics tracked and reported by four or more companies.
Representative terms from entire chapter: