Appendix C
Technology Needs Identified by the MWFA

Technology Need

Summary Description

1. Characterization

Nondestructive examination and nondestructive assay techniques and equipment are required to determine the nature of the waste matrix in any package, confirm the presence and concentration of regulated materials and radionuclides, and identify characteristics of concern for operational safety and process continuity.

2. Mercury Stabilization

Mercury contamination at a level less than 260 ppm requires stabilization to control mercury solubility to the Universal Treatment Standards (<0.2 ppm).

3. Salt Stabilization

Stabilization processes are required that increase salt waste loadings, improve durability and/or reduce the volume increase typical of today's standard practices.

4. Waste Form Performance

An objective, technically defensible evaluation of the value of advanced waste forms in disposal site performance assessments is being conducted. Data needs identified in the evaluation will be addressed as required.



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--> Appendix C Technology Needs Identified by the MWFA Technology Need Summary Description 1. Characterization Nondestructive examination and nondestructive assay techniques and equipment are required to determine the nature of the waste matrix in any package, confirm the presence and concentration of regulated materials and radionuclides, and identify characteristics of concern for operational safety and process continuity. 2. Mercury Stabilization Mercury contamination at a level less than 260 ppm requires stabilization to control mercury solubility to the Universal Treatment Standards (<0.2 ppm). 3. Salt Stabilization Stabilization processes are required that increase salt waste loadings, improve durability and/or reduce the volume increase typical of today's standard practices. 4. Waste Form Performance An objective, technically defensible evaluation of the value of advanced waste forms in disposal site performance assessments is being conducted. Data needs identified in the evaluation will be addressed as required.

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--> 5. Material Handling Methods and equipment designs are required that will provide for handling all types of DOE waste materials in all process steps without undue risk of exposure of operating personnel to radioactivity. 6. Sorting/Segregation Efficient separation of mixed wastes from nonradioactive waste or waste that is radioactive only (i.e., non-mixed waste), in a manner that is safe, reliable, and minimizes exposure, is required. 7. Mercury Separation/Removal New techniques must be developed to physically or chemically remove the mercury from waste matrices (including soil, all types of process residues or sludges and particulate materials, and debris) for separate stabilization. 8. Mercury Amalgamation Methods and equipment designs are required for amalgamating bulk non-recyclable mercury to meet the Universal Treatment Standards (<0.2 ppm). 9. TRU Transportation Improved methods would increase the amount of untreated waste shipped to WIPP or a treatment facility, thereby reducing risks and costs associated with repackaging and/or treatment. Improved methods would reduce gas generation potential, reduce flammable gas concentrations, or provide alternative approaches to demonstrating compliance with allowable gas generation rates.

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--> 10. Ash Stabilization Ash stabilization processes are required that increase waste loadings, improve durability, and/or reduce the volume increase typical of today's standard practices. 11. Mercury Monitor Though mercury monitors are commercially available, it would be advantageous to develop real-time continuous emission monitors requiring minimal consumables and low maintenance, with operating ranges covering the emission limits typical of thermal treatment processes. 12. Alpha Monitor Though alpha monitors are commercially available, it would be advantageous to develop real-time continuous emission monitors requiring minimal consumables and low maintenance, with operating ranges covering the emission limits typical of alpha material processing facilities. 13. Mercury Filter A potential enhancement to traditional treatment design for selective mercury removal from off-gas, which removes essentially all of the mercury from the off-gas for separate treatment, is required. 14. Heavy Metal Monitor It would be advantageous to develop real-time, multi-metal continuous emission monitors requiring minimal consumables and low maintenance, which can identify specific metals in operating ranges covering the emission limits typical of hazardous waste incinerators. 15. VOC/SVOC Monitor It would be advantageous to develop real-time, multi-metal continuous emission monitors requiring minimal consumables and low maintenance, which can identify specific volatile and semi-volatile organic contaminants (VOC/SVOC), particularly dioxins and furans in operating ranges covering the emission limits typical of hazardous waste incinerators.

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--> 16. Alternative Organic Oxidation Candidate technologies that are alternatives to incineration for oxidation of organics need to be demonstrated to verify whether any one or combination of technologies can reliably treat all of the organic constituents expected to be present in mixed waste, and be operated in a radioactive environment. 17. High Temperature Particulate Removal Filters capable of operating at high temperatures, typical at the outlet of thermal treatment processes, and capable of removing a substantial fraction of the particulates prior to quenching or scrubbing are required. 18. Radionuclide Partitioning More complete information on the partitioning of radionuclides between the final waste form, the off-gas, and any secondary wastes in mixed waste treatment processes is needed to support equipment design and process permitting. 19. Trace Metal Removal Techniques are needed to meet permit requirements in effluents (e.g., 0.001 mg/L cadmium, 0.003 mg/L lead, and 0.004 mg/L silver) while minimizing secondary waste generation. 20. Fission Product Removal Methods are needed for removal or significant reduction of the concentrations of fission products from mixed waste, especially process residues, sludges and waste waters.

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--> 21. Refractory Performance Improved operating techniques better suited to the DOE-specific processing conditions are required for long-term processing success. 22. Nitrate Destruction Methods are needed to destroy or remove residual nitrates from sludges and waste-waters. 23. Sludge Washing Approaches are required to enhance the performance of candidate sludge washing technologies to demonstrate feed preparation and washing of process residues, sludges and particulates to RCRA requirements. 24. Molten Product Decanting Operating techniques and equipment design are required to facilitate decanting or transfer of molten materials from furnaces in an effective, reliable and safe manner in a radioactive environment.   Source: DOE, 1997a