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STATI STICAL APPENDIX TRENDS IN ADOLE SCENT SEXUAL AND FERTILITY BEHAVIOR Kristin A. Moore, DeeAnn Wenk, Sandra L. Hofferth, and Cheryl D. Hayes, editors The major purpose of this statistical appendix is to provide an integrated and comprehensive source of data on teenage fertility be- havior. To date, much of the public data on prevalence of sexual activ- ity by age, sex, race and cohort in the United States, as well as trends in pregnancies, births, abortions, marriage and adoption, have not been available in any single source. Much of the information pre- sented in this statistical appendix was derived f rom data published by various federal government agencies, including the U.S. Bureau of Census and the National Center for Health Statistics. Much of it is also available in published form from non-governmental surveys. Some of the information presented here was derived from unpublished data made available by both governmental and non-governmental sources. This statistical appendix is one part of a comprehensive examina- tion of adolescent pregnancy and childbearing conducted by the Panel on Adolescent Pregnancy and Childbearing, under the auspices of the National Research Council's Committee on Child Development Research and Public Policy. The study was supported by a consortium of private foundations, including the Rockefeller Foundation, the Ford Founda- tion, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, and the Charles Stewart Mott Foundation. Over the two years of the study, the panel conducted a detailed review of data on trends in teenage sexual and fertility behavior, a review and synthesis of research on the antecedents and consequences of adolescent pregnancy and childbearing, and a review of intervention strategies and programs. The statistical appendix was prepared as background for the panel's re- port and as a reference for policy-makers, researchers, and others seeking information on patterns of sexual and fertility behavior among U.S. teenagers. This appendix is organized according to the panel's conceptual scheme for understanding adolescent sexual decision making. The pro- cess of becoming an adolescent parent, beginning with the initiation of sexual intercourse, involves a series of decision points faced by all adolescents (see Volume I, Chapter 1) . Choices (which vary in their degree of conscious decisionmaking) at each successive point in the sequence are dependent on the outcomes of previous choices. The A-1 / 353

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A-2 / 354 total number and proportion of adolescents reaching each point in the decision-making process are determined by a variety of social and demo- graphic factors. The proportion of teenagers who are sexually active and the consis- tency of contraceptive use are the key factors that affect the proba- bility of pregnancy in the adolescent population. Once a pregnancy occurs, the proportion of teenagers who voluntarily terminate their pregnancy, give birth in- or out-of-wedlock, or relinquish their child for adoption affects the number of teenagers who become parents and the number who become unmarried parents. A change in the size of the ado- lescent population or in any of these factors will ultimately produce a change in the number of adolescent parents. Thus, it is important to examine recent trends and current levels in the frequencies of an entire range of behaviors in order to understand trends in adolescent pregnancy and childbearing. Additionally, adolescents are not a monolithic group. Adolescent behavior varies by age, sex, race, ethnicity and socioeconomic charac- teristics. For this reason, we have endeavored to provide data by age categories (i.e., less than 15 years old, 15 to 17 years old, and 18 to 19 years old) by race and ethnicity, and by sex. In some cases, however, data were not available in the desired form. Often, for example, age categories were inconsistent over time and across sources. Some data were not available by race and ethnicity. Despite these difficulties, we have tried to provide as much information as possible while retaining the ability to make meaningful comparisons of data from different sources and over time. In many cases data for older age groups are presented for comparison with adolescent age groups. The statistical appendix is organized into eight sections contain- ing tables with brief accompanying summaries. Sections 1 through 4 present data on teenagers at successive points along the path to ado- lescent pregnancy, including sexual activity, contraceptive use, and premarital pregnancy. Sections 5 through 7 present data on teenagers choosing different resolutions to pregnancy including abortion, mar- riage, birth, and adoption. The final section contains information on adolescents who became parents. This appendix is not intended to be analytical. The earlier chap- ters of Volume II provide a more complete synthesis of the research literature, an assessment of the reliability of the data, and an iden- tification of gaps in available knowledge. The addendum to this volume contains detailed descriptions of the major sources of data used for constructing the tables.

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TABLES I. SEXUAL ACTIVITY AMONG ADOLESCENTS . Proportion Of Women Aged 15 To 19 Beginning Menstruation At Specific Ages, By Race, 1976 - 1980 1.2 1.3 1.4 I.5 1.6 1.8 1.9 Percent Never Married Women Living In Metropolitan Areas Ever Experiencing Sexual Intercourse, By Age 1971 - 1982 All Women And Never-Married Women Who Have Ever Had Sexual Intercourse, By Age And Race, 1982, National Survey Of Family Growth Cumulative Sexual Activity By Single Year Of Age, Sex, Race And Ethnicity, 1983, National Longitudinal Survey Of Youth Cumulative Percentage Of Women And Men Under 20 Who Ever Had Intercourse, By Age, Race And Study, United States, 1938 to 1984 Percent of Sexually Experienced Never-Married Women Aged 15-19 Who Had Intercourse Only Once, by Age and Race, 1976 Frequency Of Sexual Intercourse Among Unmarried Females 15 To 24 Who Ever Had Intercourse By Race, 1982 National Survey Of Family Growth Distribution {in Percentages) Of Total Number Of Premarital Sexual Partners, By Race: 1971, 1976 And 1979 - Sexually Experienced Females Aged 15 to 19, Metropolitan U.S. Percentage Distribution Of Women Aged 15-19 And Of Men Aged 17-21, By Relationship With Their First Sexual Partner, According To Race, 1979, Metropolitan U.S. 1.10 Percentage Distribution Of Women Aged 15-19 And Of Men Aged 17-21, By Relationship With Their First Sexual Partner, According To Age At First Intercourse, 1979, Metropolitan U.S. A-3 / 355

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A-4 / 356 1.11 Percentage Distribution Of Locale Of First Premarital Inter- course, Women Aged 15-19, By Race, 1976 And 1979, Metropolitan U .S . 1.12 Estimated Cummulative Percent Ever Experiencing Sexual Inter- course By Single Year of Age, Race, Ethnicity And Mother's Education, 1983, National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1.13 Cumulative Sexual Activity By Single Year Of Age And By Drop Out Rate Of Respondent's High School, 1979 From National Longitudinal Survey Of Youth I I . CONTRACEPTIVE USE AMONG ADOLESCENTS 2.1 Percentage Distribution Of Sexually Active Women Aged 15-19, By Contraceptive-Use Status, According To Race, 1976, 1979, 1982 2.2 Percent Of Women Aged 15-44 Who Used A Contraceptive Method At First Intercourse And Percent Distribution Of Women Who Used A Method, By Type Of Method, 1982 National Survey Of Family Growth 2.3 Percentage Distribution Of Sexually Experienced Women Aged 15-19 And Men Aged 17-21, By Type Of Contraceptive Method Used At First Intercourse; Percentage Distribution Of Those Using A Method, By Type Of Method; According To Race And Planning Status Of First Intercourse, 1979, Metropolitan U.S. 2.4 Percentage Distribution Of Sexually Experienced Women Aged 15-19 By Type of Contraceptive Method Used At First Inter- course; Percentage Distribution Of Those Using A Method, By Type Of Method; According To Race, 1982 National Survey Of Family Growth Percentage Distribution Of Sexually Experienced Women Aged 15-19 And Men Aged 17-21 Who Did Not Use A Contraceptive Method At First Intercourse, By Reason Reported For Not Having Used A Method, According To Planning Status Of First Intercourse And Race, 1979, Metropolitan O.S. Percent Of Sexually Active Unmarried Women Under Age 20 By Timing Of First Contraception And Age At First Intercourse, According To Race, 1982, National Survey Of Family Growth Number of Women Aged 15-44 Exposed To The Risk Of Unintended Pregnancy, And Percentage Currently Practicing Contraception, By Marital Status, by Age, National Survey Of Family Growth

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A-5 / 357 2.8 Number Of Never Married Women 15-44 Years Of Age Who Were Exposed To The Risk Of An Unintended Pregnancy, And Percent Using A Method Of Contraception, By Race And Age, And Percent Distribution Of Contraceptors By Method Of Contraception, According To Race And Age: United States, 1982 2.9 Number And Percentage Distribution Of Hispanic And Non-Hispanic Women Aged 15 To 19 (All Marital Statuses) Currently Exposed To The Risk Of Unintended Pregnancy By Current Contraceptive Status, 1982 National Survey of Family Growth 2.10 Percent Of Never-Married Women Aged 15-19 Who Correctly Per ceived The Time Of Greatest Pregnancy Risk Within The Menstrual Cycle, By Age, Race And Sexual Experience, 1976 And 1971 2.11 Standardized Contraceptive-Use Failure Rates By User Character- istics And Method Type: Single Women, January 1, 1979-July 1, 1982 III. PREGNANCY AMONG ADOLESCENTS 3.1 Reproductive Behavior, U.S. Women Aged 15-19, 1960-1984 Pregnancies, Abortions, Miscarriages And Live Births By Marital Status To Women Aged 15 To 19, 1982 Proportion Of Women Ever-Pregnant Before Age 20, 1976 And 1981 Percentage of Premaritally Sexually Active Women Aged 15-19 Who Ever Experienced A Premarital First Pregnancy, By Contraceptive- Use Status And Race, 1979 And 1976, Metropolitan U.S. Estimated Cumulative Percent Of Metropolitan-Area Females Aged 15-19 With Premarital First Pregnancy, By Duration Since First Intercourse, Race And Contraceptive Use Status, U.S., 1979 3.6 Percentage Distributions Of Women Aged 15-19 Who Ever Experienced A Premarital First Pregnancy And Were Unmarried At The Time The Pregnancy Was Resolved, By Pregnancy Intention And, Among Those Who Did Not Want The Pregnancy, By Contracep- tive Use, According To Race, 1979, 1976 And 1971 (Metropolitan- Area Teenagers) IV. INDUCED ABORTION AMONG ADOLESCENTS 4.1 Number And Percentage Distribution Of Legal Abortions, Abortion Rate Per 1,000 Women, And Percentage Of Pregnancies Terminated By Abortion, By Age Of Women, United States, Selected Years, 1974-1982

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A-6 / 358 4.2 Percent Change In Abortion Rates And In The Number Of Preg nancies Terminated By Abortions By Age Group, 1974 To 1978, 1979 To 1981, 1981 To 1982 4.3 Abortion Rate Per 1,000 Women, By Age-group And Race, According To Marital Status, 1979-1981 4.4 Estimated Abortion Rate Per 1,000 Women Aged 12-19 By Race, United States, 1971-1978 4.5 Legal Abortions Per 1~000 Births (Abortion Ratio) By Age At Conception And By Race, United States, 1972-1978 4.6 Ratios of Induced Terminations of Pregnancy By Race And Age Of Woman, 1980: 12-State Area 4.7 Percent of Induced Terminations of Pregnancy To Women With No Previous Induced Termination, By Age And Race Of Women: 12-State Area, 1980 V. MARRIAGE AMONG PREGNANT ADOLESCENTS 5.1 5.2 Percent Of Males And Females Aged 15 to 19 Never-married, By Race And Ethnicity, 1960-1985 Percentage Of First-Born Babies Born to Mothers Aged 15-19 Conceived Either Maritally or Extra-Maritally, By Race, Age, and Marital Status at First Birth According To Birth Cohort Of Baby VI. CHARACTERISTICS OF BIRTHS TO ADOLESCENTS 6.1 Number Of Births In The United States To Women Under Age 20 By Race, 1955 - 1984 6.2 Birth Rates By Age Of Mother, By Race Of Child, United States, 1950 - 1984 6.3 Number Of Out-Of-Wedlock Births In The United States (estimated) By Age Of Mother: 1955-1984 6.4 Birth Rates For Unmarried Women by Age of Mother and Race of Child: United States, 1970-84 6.5 Live Births By Age Of Father, Age Of Mother, And Race Of Child: United States, 1983

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A-7 / 3 59 6.6 Percent Of All First Births And Total Births In Which The Mother's Age Was Under 20, Under 18 Or Under 15, By Race, United States, 1950-1984 6 . 7 Number and Percent of All L ive Births to Women Under Age 20 by Hispanic Origin of Mother: Total of 23 Reporting States and the D istr ict of Columbia, 1984 6.8 Number and Percent of All Out of Wedlock Births to Women under Age 20 by Hispanic Origin of Mother: Total of 23 Reporting States and the District of Columbia, 1984 6.9 Percentage Of Mothers Receiving Inadequate Prenatal Care, By Age Group According To Race And Ethnicity, Residence And Marital Status, National Natality Survey 1980 6.10 Number and Percent Of Live Births With Low Birth Weight and Live Births by Birth Weight, by Age of Mother and Race of Child: United States, 1983; Based On 100 Percent Of Births In Selected States And On A 50-Percent Sample Of Births In All Other States 6.11 Estimated Cumulative Percent of Women Aged 15 to 19 Ever Experiencing First Birth By Single Year of Age, Race, and Ethnicity, 1982 National Survey of Family Growth Cumulative Percent Having A First Birth By Single Year Of Age, Race And Ethnicity, And By Mother's Education, Education in 1979; 1983 National Longitudinal Surrey of Youth 6.13 Infant Mortality Rates (deaths at less than one year of age per 1, 000 live births) By Age of Mother, U.S. Study of Infant Mortality f rom Linked Records and 1980 National Natality Survey/National Death Index (NNS/NDI) VII ADOPTION OF CHILDREN BORN TO ADOLESCENTS . Percentage Distribution Of Premarital Live Births Resulting From First Pregnancies Of Women Aged 15-19 At Interview, By Living Arrangements Of Baby And Race Of Mother: 1982, 1976, and 1971 7.2 Percentage Of Babies Born Premaritally To Women 15-44 Years Of Age At Interview Who Were Placed For Adoption By Age Of Mother At Birth Of Child And Race, 1982 National Survey of Family Growth 7.3 Adoptions by Type and Age of Mother, State of California Selected Years, 1967 to 1983

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A-8 / 360 VIII. CHARACTERISTICS OF ADOLESCENT PARENTS 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 Percent of Women Aged 20-29 Completing High School By Age At Birth Of First Child, Race And Ethnicity, 1982 National Survey of Family Growth Percent of Mothers Aged 20-29 Having A Subsequent Birth Within 24 Months Of The First, By Their Age at First Birth, Race And Ethnicity, 1982 National Survey of Family Growth Cumulative Percentage Of Metropolitan-area Women Aged 15-19 Who Had A Premarital Second Pregnancy, By Number Of Months Following Outcome Of The Premarital First Pregnancy, According To Race, Outcome And Age At Conclusion Of First Pregnancy, 1971, 1976 and 1979 Receipt Of AFDC Among Women Aged 20-29 By The Women' s Age At First Birth, Pace, And Ethnicity, 1982 National Survey Of Family Growth Poverty Status Of Mothers Aged 20-29, By Their Age At First Birth, Race, and Ethnicity, 1982 National Survey of Family Growth 1,

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I . SEXUAL ACT IVITY AMONG ADOLESCENTS This section presents information on sexual activity among adoles- cents in the United States. Data are provided on sexual activity among never-married teens and married teens before and after marriage. In most cases the designation of being sexually active pertains to men and women ever having intercourse. Data are also provided on frequency of sexual intercourse, number of premarital sexual partners, location of first intercourse and other factors that may affect the timing of first sexual intercourse among adolescents, such as age at first menstruation. The data came f rom three main sources, the National Surveys of Young Women and Men (NSYW/M), the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth (NLS), and the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG). The 1979 NSYW/M are for U. S . metropolitan areas only. For this reason the data in Table 1.2 from the 1971 and the 1976 NSYW/M and the 1982 NSFG were adjusted to include metropolitan areas only, in order to present a comparable time series. In subsequent tables for which similar data from the 1982 NSFG were not available, only data from the NSYW/M are presented. Data on young men are only available in the NSYM and the NLS. . The estimates of female sexual activity based on data from the NLS and the NSFG although generally consistent, differ in three respects. First, the age categories for the NSFG are mid-year (i.e., age 15 means 15.5 years) whereas for the NLS data, the age categories extend to the end of a specified age (i.e., age 15 means until the 16th birthday). Second, unless otherwise noted data from the NLS include all women re- gardless of marital status. Third, Hispanic persons in the NLS data may be of any race (black or white); in the NSFG data, unless other- wise noted black and white totals include Hispanic persons. This means that the race and ethnicity categories are not mutually exclusive. The NSYW/M do not include data on H ispanics. A-9 / 361

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A-10 / 362 TABLE 1.1 Proportion Of Women Aged 15 To 19 Beginning Menstruation At Specific Ages, By Race Of Women, 1976 - 19801 - Proportion of Women, by Race Age at First Menstrual Cycle Total WhitesBlacks 8-105.1% 4.6%7.6% 1112.7 12.117.6 1229.4 29.624.7 1330.2 31.425.8 1413.1 12.914.8 155.9 5.8 162.9 2.99.5 17+0.7 0.7 100.0 100.0100.0 Mean Age12.6 12.712.5 \ N = 2,121 1,767 305 Notes: None of the black-white differences in age at menarche reach accepted levels of statistical significance. The total group includes 49 women of other race groups. Where cell sizes fell below 25, data are grouped in categories. Data are derived from women's responses to a question in the medical interview, "How old were you when your period or menstrual cycles started? Data were coded in years. Source: Unpublished tabulation from Ronette Briefel, National Center for Health Statistics, DHHS, Second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1976 - 1980.

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A-11 / 363 TABLE 1.1 Table 1.1 shows the proportion of women aged 15 to 19 (studied between 1976 and 1980) by age at menarche and race. These data were tabulated from the Second National Health and Nutrition Survey. Over three quarters, 77.4 percent, of all women began menstruation by age 13, 96.4 percent of all women began menstruation by age 15. The mean age at first menstruation for all women was 12.6 years, 12.7 years for white women and 12.5 years for black women. The difference in age at first menstruation between black and white women is not statistically signif icant.

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A-158 / 510 TITLE PURPOSE National Longitudinal Surveys of the Labor Market Experience of: Young Women, Young Men, Mature Women, and Mature Men This series of longitudinal surveys was initiated to ex- plore the labor market experiences over tome of several unique cohorts facing employment problems of particular concern to policy makers. The school-to-work transi- tion, initial occupational choice, adaptation to the work of work, the work-family interface and attainment of stable employment are issues of concern for the cohorts of young men, aged 14-24 in 1966 and young women, aged 14-24 in 1968. For middle aged men, aged 45-59 in 1966, issues of declining health, unemployment, the obsolescence of skills, and age discr imitation are of concern. Among women 30-44 in 1967, the key issue initially was labor force re-entry for women as their children became older. Subsequently, issues associated with women's retirement became important. Following these cohorts over time enables analysts both to de- scribe the situations of different population groups and to understand the factors that are antecedents and consequences of situations ranging from education and employment, to marriage and family, to economic status. SPONSORSHIP These four longitudinal surveys were initiated by the Office of Manpower Policy Evaluation, and Research of the Department of Labor. The Center for Human Research of Ohio State University has developed the question- naires and makes computer tapes and a wide range of documentation available. Field work is conducted by the U.S. Bureau of the Census. DESIGN Each of the four age-sex cohorts is represented by a multi-stage probability sample. To provide samples of blacks that would produce statistically reliable sta- tistics, households in enumeration districts that were primarily black were sampled at a rate between three and four times that of other households. From over 35,000 inhabited housing units, a sample of 5050 men 45-59 was interviewed. A sample of 5225 males 14-24, excluding males on active military service was inter- viewed. Five thousand eight-three women, 30-44, and 5,159 young women 14-24 were also interviewed. The total number of households represented in the four NLS samples is 13,582; thus the sample includes a number of

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A-159 / 511 families that have contributed more than one respondent. Initially, most interviews were conducted in person; however the majority of the interviews conducted in person; however the majority of the interviews conducted during the 197Os were done on the telephone. Data have been weighted to adjust for over-sam- pling and for sample attrition; when weighted, the data are nationally representative. As of the 15-year interview points, approximately 56 percent of the males originally 45-59, 65 percent of the younger men, and about 70 percent of the two women's cohorts interviewed initially were still being interviewed. PERIODICITY Young women were interviewed annually between 1968 and 1973, in 1975, 1977, 1978, 1980, 1982, 1983 and 1985. Further interviews are planned for 1987 and 1988. Women were interviewed annually between 1967-69. 1971-1972, 1974, 1976, 1977, 1979, 1981, 1982, and 1984. Interviews are tentatively planned for 1986 and 1987. . in Young men were interviewed annually between 1966 and 1971, in 1975, 1976, 1978, 1980, and 1983. Further interviews have been cancelled. Men were interviewed annually between 1966 and 196 9, in 1971, 1973, 1975, 1976, 1978, 1980, 1981, and 1983 . Further interviews have been cancelled. CONTENT In keeping with the primary orientation of the surveys toward labor force issues, numerous questions focus on employment experience, unemployment, income, and training. However, quite a bit of information was collected about the family background and the social and economic status of the family as well. None of the respondents were still children at ter the mid-1970s; however, a majority of the young women and young men had become parents by the 1980s, and some limited formation is available about their children. Consicter- able information, shown below, was collected on the family situation of the young men and young women respondents when they were growing up. ~n _

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A-160 / 512 AVAILABILITY Data tapes and complete documentation as well as a publications list are available f rom the Center for Human Resource Research, 5701 North H igh Street, Worthington, Ohio 43085. Contact: Pat Rhoton or the respective cohort coord inator s: Mature men - G ilbert Nestel Mature women - Lois Shaw Young men - Stephen Hills Young women - Frank Mott, or Pr incipal Investigator for the NLS - Ken Wolpin ~ 514 888-8238 or (614) 422-7337

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A-161 / 513 TITLE PURPOSE Vital Statistics of the United States--Natality The purpose of the nasality reporting system is to col- lect and tabulate at the federal level data on births from the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Demo- graphic and health information can be analyzed by researchers and policymakers interested in assessing the health of infants and pinpointing health problems, making population projections and estimates, and mea- suring progress made by national health programs. In addition, the birth certificate provides legal proof of the birth. SPONSORSHIP The National Center for Health Statistics, vital Statistics Division, collects and publishes nasality data. DESIGN Data are collected at the local level and forwarded to the state level. States report the data to the Division of Vital Statistics. A certificate for all live births and for stillbirths is completed by the attending physician or other health personnel. One hundred per- cent of the births are reported to NCHS in 42 states and 50 percent are reported in the remaining areas. PERIODICITY Data collection is continuous. Monthly and annual reports are issued. CONTENT The certificate of live birth, which is the source of vital registration data, contains a limited number of items. The mother's marital status is reported for only 41 states and D.C.; as of 1980 it is inferred for 9 states by comparing parent and child surnames. Parent educations is reported for 47 states and D.C. LIMITATIONS Not all states obtain all information and the range of data is limited (see above).

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A-162 / 514 AVAILABILITY Data tapes may be purchased f rom the National Technical Information Service (703) 487-4780. Contact: Stephanie Ventura, Selma Taf f el or Bob Heuser, Chief (301) 436-8954, fatality Branch, Division of Vital Statistics, Nat tonal Center for Health Stat ist ics, 3 7 0 0 East-West H ighway, Hyattsville, Maryland 20792

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A-163 / 515 TITLE PURPOSE Current Population Survey The primary purpose of The Current Population Survey is to provide monthly measures of the character istics of the labor force, labor force participation, employment, and unemployment in the United States as well as ind i- vidual states and reg ions. In addition the survey ser- ves as a vehicle for a ser ies of supplements, conducted with vary ing deg rees of regular ity . Recent supplements have inc luded job tenure and occupational mobility (January ), demog raphic and income supplement (March), alimony and child support (April), multiple job holding (May), fertility (June), immunization (September), school enrollment (October) , and voting and registra- t ion (November ~ . These supplements are not necessar fly conducted each year. For example, the voting and regis- tration supplements are conducted only in elections year s . SPONSORSHIP The core survey is funded by the U . S . Department of Labor, which is responsible for its content. The Supplements are f unded by a var. iety of sponsors, such as the Nat tonal Inst itute of Ch lid Health and Human Development ~ some of the fertility and childcare sup plements) and the National Center for Education Sta tistics ~ the education supplements) . The data are collected by the U . S . Bureau of the Censu s. DESIGN The survey is designed to be representative of all per- sons age 14 or over living in households in the IJnited States. More specif ically it covers the civilian non- institutional population plus armed forces personnel living off-base or living on base with their families. A multi-stage probability sampling method is used in- volving f irst the selection of geographically def ined primary sampling units (629 in 1982), next (through sub-stages) the selection of households within sampling units (63, 000 households in 1982), and f inally the iden- tif ication of all persons 14 and over in sample house- holds. In 1983, interviews, conducted in person, were obtained in 60, 000 of the 63, 000 households selected. The sample is designed to cover each of the 50 states and the D istr ict of Columbia. The sample is slowly changed through the use of rotation groups. Any given rotation group is in the sample for

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A-164 / 516 4 months, leaves the sample for 8 months, and returns for a final 4 months. In any given month the sample is composed of households from 8 different rotation groups. PERIODICITY The survey was begun in 1940 and has been conducted monthly since then. For the purpose of measuring em- ployment, that week which contains the 12th of the month is used as a reference week. CONTENT In addition to data on employment, unemployment, per sonal income, and work-related activities, the core survey collects data on family income, housing tenure, household composition, age, sex, education, race/ origin, and marital status. AVAILABILITY A rich array of published tabulations are available in The Current Population Reports, especially Series P-20 (population characteristics), Series P-23 {special studies), Series P-25 (population estimates and projec- tions) and P-60 {consumer income). Machine-readable micro data files are available from the Bureau of the Census for most months (for infor- mation about the availability of data for a particular month, inquiry may be made at Customer Services). Each file contains the data for a particular month. The first year for which files are available is 1968. Files for March are typically available 3-4 months after the survey date. The delay for other months may be longer. Contact: Greg Weiland 301/763-2773 Data Users Services Division: Customer Services 301/763-4100

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A-165 / 517 TITLE PURPOSE Current Population Survey-Fertility Supplements The fertility supplements are designed to provide national estimates of women's fertility and expecta- tions for future births. In addition some supple- ments (1977, 1982) have provided information about the child care arrangements used by working mothers for their youngest child under age 5. SPONSORSHIP The fertility and birth expectations portions of the supplement are entirely a project of the U.S. Bureau of the Census. The child care portions of the 1977 supple- ment was sponsored by the Department of Health and Human Services and an expanded fertility supplement in 1980 was jointly sponsored by the Bureau and the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. DESIGN A description of the basic design of the Current Popu- lation Survey was provided in the write-up of the core survey. The supplemental questions have been asked of all persons in sampled households meeting certain eli- gibility requirements. Most recently these criteria are being an never-married female age 15-59 or a never married female age 18-59. Birth expectation questions are asked of women 18-44. However, these age criteria have varied from as low as age 14 to as high as age 75 In the expanded fertility supplement marital history data were gathered on men age 15-75 as well as women. PERIODICITY The supplement has been conducted each June since 1971. A supplement is planned for 1984. CONTENT Each supplement collects data on fertility and birth expectations. In addition the 1971, 1975, and 1980 supplements provide data on marriages and child spacing; and the 1977 and 1982 supplements, on child care. The 1980 supplement for the first time collected data on the marriage histories of men as well as of women, and included questions about men's children under 18 from previous marriages and whether any of these children live elsewhere.

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A-166 / S18 LIMITATIONS The usual supplement is quite brief, only providing data on total number of births, the birthrate of the youngest (sometimes also the oldest) child, and the number of additional children expected. The child care sections in 1977 and 1982 cover only child care arrange meets of working mothers with children under 5, and for only the youngest of these children. Data are gathered on the kind of payment (cash or non-cash) but not the amount. The exclusion of unmarried women under 18 from any of the supplements means that no data on out-of- wedlock births to younger teenagers are available from this source. Analyses of data from the marriage histories have shown that such retrospective histories are subject to con- siderable error, especially with regard to events several years in the past. The survey's practice of obtaining information from proxy respondents undoubtedly compounds this effect. Since most respondents are women, the data for men are most seriously affected. Comparisons with other sources of data also show that the reports of men's children from previous marriages living elsewhere are too low. AVAILABILITY Refer to the description of the core survey. Machine- readable micro,data files are available for June from 1973. The latest tape currently available containing data from the June supplement is for 1982.

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A-167 / 519 TITLE PURPOSE The National Surveys of Young Women and Men (Kantner- Zelnik data) The Kantner-Zelnik studies have been a primary source of data on sexual experience of U.S. females between the ages of 15 and 19 dur ing the 1970's and males age 17 to 21 in 1979. In addition, the three surveys (1971, 1976, and 1979) collected information on contraceptive use, pregnancies, pregnancy intention, and sex educa- tion experience. SPONSORSHIP John I. Kantner and Melvin zelnik have been the prin- cipal investigators of these surveys. Funding has been provided by the Center for Population Research, NICHD, the Ford Foundation, and General Services Foundation. DESI ON The designs have differed slightly for the three inter- views. The 1971 survey interviewed 15-19 year old women living in households in the continental United States, H=4 611, and by means of a separate sample, young women living in college dormitories, total N=4611, and by means of a separate sample, young women living in college dormitories, total N=219. The 1976 survey sam- pled 2500 women born between March 1956 and February 1961 ~ age 15-19) living in households in the continental United States. The 1979 su.rvev included both young women and young men living "in households in Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas (SMSAs) in the continen- tal United States. Eligible female respondents were born between March 1959 and February 1964 (ages 15-19), total N=1, 717, and eligible men between March 1957 and February 1962, total N=917. PERIODICITY Interviews have been conducted in three different years: 1971, 1976 and 1979. There have been different respondents in each cohort. CONTENT Detailed data are collected on sexual activity, contra- ceptive use, pregnancy, pregnancy intention, and sex education exper fence. Some background information was also collected. LIMITATIONS Under-reporting of abortions, pregnancies and births.

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A-168 / 520 TITLE Alan Guttmacher Institute (AGI ~ PURPOSE The Alan Guttmacher Institute is a primary source of data on U.S. abortion services. The AGI has surveyed all identif fed abort ion providers in each state each year since 1973. SPONSORSHIP The Alan Guttmacher Institute, which receives support from a variety of private foundations. DESIGN All identified abortion providers in each state are surveyed. PERIODICITY The survey has covered each year from 1973-1982. CONTENT Data on age, race, marital status, education, number of children, gestation at abortion, number of previous abortions, and method of abortion are obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and combined with AGI data on the totals number of abortions to generate national estimates.