TABLE 1-1 Milestones in Ozone Pollution and Its Control in the United States





Ozone molecule discovered

Schoenbein 1840


Ozone presence in atmosphere documented

Schoenbein 1854


Ozone shown to be toxic to animals

Andrews 1874


Photochemical smog found to be causing crop damage

Middleton 1950


Ozone found to be major oxidant in photochemical smog VOC's and NOx shown to be ozone photochemical precursors

Haagen-Smit 1952


Basic science of ozone pollution documented in monograph

Leighton 1961


Clean Air Act of 1970 (CAA-70) establishes national program for the mitigation of ozone pollution in the United States. Sets 1975 as deadline for attainment of NAAQS



CAA-70 attainment deadline not met



Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977 (CAAA-77) establishes 1982 and 1987 as new deadlines for attainment



CAAA-77 attainment deadlines still not met



Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 establishes new attainment deadlines extending into the 21st century and authorizes implementation of a reformulated gasoline program



New 8-hr, 80-ppb NAAQS for ozone promulgated

EPA 1997a

on average by about 1% per year from 1986 to 1997 (EPA 1998). On the other hand, the problem remains far from solved. In 1997, about 48 million people lived in 77 counties where ozone concentrations exceeded the second daily maximum 0.12-ppm, 1-hr NAAQS for ozone (EPA 1998). Of the 29 urban areas required by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 to submit State Implementation Plans, 27 were unable to submit plans that showed attainment by the mandated date of 1998. Moreover, the promulgation of a new 8-hr, 80-ppb NAAQS for ozone in 1997 is expected to approximately triple the number of nonattainment counties

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